Tag Archives: and

German minority policies in Romania and its foundations | Instant News

In the 12th century, a large number of Germans immigrated to Eastern Europe to start trading in this region. Of this group, many Germans also settled in Romania, especially in Transylvania. The group of so-called Romanian Germans continued to develop in the following centuries, mainly due to further emigration from Germany.

Romanian Germans have been able to maintain their culture, language and religion for more than 850 years. However, the number of Romanian Germans dropped dramatically during and after the Cold War due to immigration to Germany.

Although the German minority numbered about 750,000 in 1930, today there are only about 36,000 Germans in Romania.

Relations between Germany and Romanian Germans have always been very close. Although the German minority settled in Romania, they wanted to reunite with Germany in recent centuries.

The attempt at unification with the German Empire in 1871 and cooperation with Nazi Germany in Romania during World War II are important examples of this desire for unification.

Despite discrimination, the German minority is tolerated in Romanian majority society and is even seen as a role model. This is mainly because the German minority makes a large contribution to the Romanian economy through trade.

Even during Nicolae Ceausescu’s regime during the Cold War, German minorities were allowed to continue their Protestant and Catholic practices in churches, albeit with restrictions. This was not a given during the communist era.

After the end of the Cold War, Romania, like other Eastern European countries, underwent a process of transformation. In this process, integration of democracy and rule of law is declared the ultimate goal. Germany concluded a bilateral agreement with Romania in 1992, and in 1995 and 1996, the two countries entered into additional cooperation agreements in the fields of education and culture.

German presence

This agreement greatly strengthened German-Romanian relations in the long term. During this process, several German institutions, foundations and companies have established themselves in Romania.

Among the most important German foundations are the politically affiliated Konrad Adenauer Foundation, the Hans Seidel Foundation, the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation.

According to their own statements, these foundations independently pursued the goal of strengthening the rule of law and the democratization process in Romania.

Although these foundations act independently of each other, they adhere to certain guidelines of German foreign policy. Collaboration can also occur between these political foundations if interests overlap in one area.

Much of the collaboration took place between the Konrad Adenauer Foundation and the Hans Seidel Foundation because of their political closeness.

Political foundations usually organize seminars, conferences, workshops and symposiums to bring Western European values ​​closer to the Romanian public.

But most importantly, these organizations serve to train aspiring politicians in Romania and connect them with German politicians and academics.

To strengthen this network, these foundations organize educational excursions to the Bundestag, for example. This also increased German influence on politics in Romania.

With regard to culture and education, the Goethe Institute in Bucharest is the most important German institution. The Goethe Institute ensures the preservation of German culture and language in Romania, not only with seminars and workshops, but also with targeted German teacher training.

The Goethe Institute collaborates with several schools and universities in Romania to teach, for example, German at these institutions. The Goethe Institute is directly funded by the German state, individuals and sponsors.

Educational problems

In addition, there are German schools in Romania run by the Goethe Institute and the Central Agency for Schools Abroad (ZfA), where students can take the German Abitur, a test required to qualify for admission to German universities.

Officially, there are 53 German-speaking schools, most of which are attended by Romanian children from the upper middle class. This is mainly because Germany’s minority population is very small.

In addition, Romanian families from the upper middle class send their children to German schools because these children have much better opportunities in their future careers.

German schools are also seen as elite schools, even though they are state-funded. The reason is that the highest success rates for graduation are achieved in German schools. While the graduation rate in Romanian schools is 55% -65%, the graduation rate in German schools is 98%.

In addition, there is the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), which also supports student and academic exchanges between Germany and Romania.

Trade, economic ties

Cooperation in the field of education extends to developments in the economic field. Since the end of the Cold War, the trade volume between the two countries has continued to increase.

Especially with Romania’s entry into the European Union in 2007, a big leap can be seen: Although in 2005, its trade volume was $ 10.7 billion, it increased to $ 15.2 billion in 2007.

In 2019, the trade volume between the two countries reached more than $ 20.7 billion. Germany is considered the most important economic partner for Romania.

Despite its relatively small size, Romania is also considered an important trading partner for Germany, ranking 20th among all countries in the world.

There are currently about 7,500 companies registered in Romania with German participation. Companies such as Mahle, Bosch, Conti and Hella are particularly present in Romania. Daimler has also invested approximately 300 million euros ($ 365 million) in Sebes, Transylvania.

In addition, German retail chains such as Kaufland have also found Romania as a location. According to the German-Romanian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, German companies are the third largest foreign investor in Romania in terms of investment.

How about the press?

German minorities have run their own daily newspapers in German for more than several centuries, which have closed numerous times. Currently there are only Allgemeine Deutsche Zeitung (ADZ) and Siebenburgische Zeitung.

The ADZ is in particular an important means of communication for the German minority, because it is through this daily newspaper that the German minority receives the most important information about current developments affecting them.

Another very important foundation is the German Democratic Forum in Romania (DFDR). The DFDR was founded in 1990 by the German minority with the aim of representing the German minority politically as an ethnic group.

Several ethnic groups live in Romania, and the Romanian parliamentary system allows each ethnic group to be represented in Parliament by at least one member of parliament from each ethnic group. The DFDR provides MPs who will represent the German minority in the Romanian Parliament.

Furthermore, it should be underlined that the DFDR is a country funded by Romania and Germany. In 2010, the German Federal Interior Ministry confirmed that it gave 1.65 million euros to the DFDR.

The German minority serves a liaison function in German-Romanian relations. The DFDR is an important instrument for successfully implementing this bridge. For example, DFDR MPs accompany Romanian government leaders on their official trips to Germany to advise them. The lawmaker played an important mediating role on this journey.

In addition, high-ranking politicians such as Horst Seehofer, Guido Westerwelle and Angela Merkel have visited the DFDR on their official trip to Romania. They stressed repeatedly how important the DFDR and the German minority are to German-Romanian relations.

The domestic political influence of the DFDR can be illustrated by the example of Romanian President Klaus Iohannis.

Iohannis himself is a member of the DFDR and, after a successful term in Sibiu as mayor, he was elected president of Romania for two consecutive terms in 2014 and 2019.

The activities of German foundations, institutions and educational institutions are of strategic importance for both countries. The German foundation has made a significant contribution to the successful transformation of Romania.

Romania’s entry to the EU in 2007 was the culmination of this successful transformation process. Educational and cultural institutions have helped not only to preserve culture and language but even to spread it to a part of the majority population of Romania.

Through better relations, a successful transformation process and support for the German language, the two countries can also benefit economically.

The German minority also contributed to the preservation of the German-Romanian community by establishing communication media. The foundations of the DFDR were not only an important means of establishing direct contact with the German government but also of exerting some influence on Romanian politics.

* Students of Master’s degree in Europe and International Relations at Turkish-German University


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Minister of Law, Home Affairs and Accountability Advisor contacted PM Imran – Pakistan | Instant News

Published in 05 January 2021 5:24 am

The Minister of Law, Home Affairs and Accountability Advisor contacted PM Imran

ISLAMABAD (Dunya News) – Law Minister Farogh Nasim and Home Affairs and Accountability Advisor Shahzad Akbar visited Prime Minister Imran Khan in Islamabad today (Tuesday).

During the meeting, they discussed important legal and constitutional issues, the way forward for solving problems, and strategies for the future.

The Prime Minister was briefed on a strategy to bring the court case to its logical conclusion in a swift and swift manner.

Farogh Nasim explained to the Prime Minister that 99.5 percent of the cases received by the Ministry of Law had been resolved. He said 100 cases were rolled back every day.

The Prime Minister appreciates the speed with which court cases are resolved.


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Goodbye 2020 when Australia and New Zealand welcome 2021 | Instant News

Goodbye 2020 when Australia and New Zealand welcome 2021

31 Dec 2020-16: 45

New Year’s Eve fireworks erupt over Sydney’s iconic Harbor Bridge and Opera House (left) during a fireworks display on January 1, 2021. / AFP / SAEED KHAN

Sydney: The world starts welcoming the New Year Thursday, with pandemic control silencing celebrations for billions of people wishing to say goodbye to virus-hit 2020.
After a difficult year that has seen at least 1.7 million people die from Covid-19, a new wave of infections has sparked a new lockdown and forced gleeful aspirants to extend the tradition of watching shows from the couch in 2020.
The long-awaited first seconds of 2021 fell on Pacific nations of Kiribati and Samoa starting at 1000 GMT, with the uninhabited Howland Islands and Baker Island being the last to head into the New Year, 26 hours later.
New Zealand, which has won plaudits for its handling of the coronavirus, followed an hour later with a large crowd gathering in Auckland to watch a fireworks display.
Despite being isolated by the closure of international borders, months of zero community-recorded cases have brought life in New Zealand back to normal.
In Australia’s largest city, Sydney, fireworks light up the glittering harbor with a dazzling display at 1300 GMT, but few onlookers watched it live.
Plans to allow crowds were scrapped amid a cluster of about 150 new infections that made travel to and from Sydney severely restricted.
“I think everyone’s looking to 2021 as a new beginning and a new beginning,” Karen Roberts, among the lucky few allowed to pass through checkpoints around the area, told AFP at a bar located below the Sydney Opera House. .
In Tokyo, which will see the new year at 1500 GMT, residents face the possibility of a state of emergency imposed after a daily record 1,300 new coronavirus infections were recorded in the past 24 hours.
Italy – where shocking images of temporary morgues and exhausted medics alert the world to the severity of the crisis – was isolated nationwide until January 7 and a 10pm curfew was imposed.
From France to Latvia to Brazil, police and – in some cases – military personnel are deployed to ensure curfews or bans on large gatherings are enforced.
In hardest-hit London, 74-year-old American singer-songwriter Patti Smith will call in the New Year with a tribute to National Health Service workers who have died from Covid-19, projected on a screen on Piccadilly Circus and broadcast on YouTube.

Social gathering
Thousands of people are expected to attend a fireworks display and laser show in Dubai at the Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest tower, despite many new cases.
All attending the event – whether in a public place, hotel or restaurant – will be required to wear a mask and register with a QR code.
In Beirut, a city still reeling from the August 4 port explosion, authorities also dismantled it.
A curfew has been in effect until 3 am. Bars, restaurants and nightclubs have all reopened and are advertising big parties to mark the turn of the year.
On the shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia, where the temperature drops to -35 degrees Celsius (-31 Fahrenheit), about a dozen Russians reappear after the winter leading up to the new year.
The swimmers, known in Russia as “walruses,” run several kilometers (miles) through the snowy forest in their bathing suits and party costumes before plunging into the world’s largest freshwater lake.
“It’s refreshing. It stings a little!” Andrei Bugai told AFP after getting out of the water.
“It will make you feel 10 years younger,” said Ksenia Novoseltseva, another swimmer, with a big smile on her face.
Chancellor Angela Merkel on Thursday used her New Year’s greetings to warn Germans that the “historic” coronavirus crisis will continue into 2021 even if a vaccine brings hope.
In Brazil – which has recorded more than 193,000 deaths from Covid-19, the second largest number in the world – frightened medics await a new wave.
In recent days, social media has been filled with videos showing revelers without masks enjoying the evening and television channels have even shown live images of police closing down bars full of customers.
“The peak of the pandemic occurs between May and July, when there is not much movement and we are taking better care of ourselves. Now there are many cases and people are acting as if there is no pandemic,” said Luiz Gustavo. de Almeida, a microbiologist at the University of Sao Paulo.


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UK: 2020 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Additional Staff; and Statement by the Executive Director for the United Kingdom | Instant News

Author / Editor:

International Monetary Fund. European Department

Publication date:

18 December 2020

Electronic Access:

Free Download. Use the free one Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this PDF file


Britain enters 2020 negotiating new economic ties with the EU and faces other challenges, including meeting climate targets, tackling an aging population and reviving warm productivity growth. Growth and investment have weakened since the 2016 referendum, and the current account deficit is rising, but unemployment is low, inflation is on target and the balance sheet is strong. The global pandemic hit Britain hard in March, and the country is now facing a second wave. The economic impact was devastating, but aided by an aggressive policy response, jobs were held, businesses remained, and banking sector losses were brought under control. However, the outlook for the short term remains weak, as the economy works through the second wave, Brexit, rising unemployment, and corporate pressure. The overall risk points to the downside, centering on the level of damage to the balance sheets experienced by households and small and medium enterprises. The speed with which vaccines control a pandemic can be an important mitigating factor.


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Health News Summary: Italy plans a primrose-shaped gazebo for its COVID-19 vaccine campaign; The first batch of Pfizer / BioNTEch COVID-19 vaccine arrives in Canada and more | Instant News

Here is a summary of the latest health news.

Italy plans a gazebo in the shape of a primrose for the COVID-19 vaccine campaign

Italy plans to set up a pavilion in the shape of a primrose in its artistic box to dispense a vaccine against the highly contagious disease caused by the new coronavirus during a campaign that starts next month. Italy, the first West The pandemic-stricken country, on Saturday took over the UK to report the highest official death toll from COVID-19 among Europeans country.

The historic US vaccine campaign begins with the first shipment of “giving hope” to millions of people

The first shipment of the COVID-19 vaccine was left in trucks and planes early Sunday, starting a historic effort to stop the pandemic that claims more than 2,400 lives a day in the United States. Workers wearing masks at the Pfizer Inc plant in Michigan begin packing the first shipment of the vaccine developed German couple BioNTech SE on dry ice as soon as 6:30 am AND (1130 GMT) on Sundays.

The US is expected to immunize 100 million people against COVID-19 by the end of March -Slaoui

The United States hopes to immunize 100 million people with the coronavirus vaccine by the end of March, the US chief advisor on the COVID-19 vaccine program said on Sunday. The first vaccine allowed for emergency use by US regulators on Friday evening and began shipping on Sunday.

The Australian state says the work from home is done, but employees are still avoiding offices

Work from home to fight the coronavirus in Australia’s most populous state ends Monday, a milestone for a country with very low COVID-19 numbers, but many companies plan to maintain flexible work arrangements through 2021. State of New South Wales ( NSW), home to the country’s largest city, Sydney, said it would continue with plans to revoke a public health regime that had been in place for most of the year as it reported no new local coronavirus infections for 10 consecutive days.

South Korea ordered schools to close as COVID-19 cases increased

South Korea ordered schools to close from Tuesday in the capital Seoul and beyond as it battles the new coronavirus outbreak, which was worst since the pandemic began, surpassing its previous peak in February. Schools in the capital region will move classes online until the end of the month, in the latest of social distancing measures that have so far failed to reverse a surge in infections.

The US CDC director is ‘proud’ to sign the recommendation of the COVID vaccine advisory panel

Director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Robert Redfield said on Sunday that he had signed the CDC advisory panel recommendation on Pfizer Inc.’s COVID-19 vaccine. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on Saturday voted 11 to 0 on recommending vaccines from Pfizer and BioNTech SE according to American 16 years and over. The Food and Drug Administration on Friday issued an emergency use authorization for the vaccine.

Spain could develop herd immunity to coronavirus by the end of summer 2021, the minister said

Spain must achieve herd immunity from COVID-19 by the end of summer 2021 if enough people are vaccinated by then, the health minister said in an interview published on Sunday. Salvador Illa said the vaccination program will start in January and by the end of summer more than two-thirds of the population of 47 million should be vaccinated.

The first batch of Pfizer / BioNTEch COVID-19 vaccine arrives in Canada

The first COVID-19 vaccine lands Canada land on Sunday, Prime Minister Justin trudeau say, and a few Canadian expected to roll up their sleeves for the photo shoot as soon as Monday. Canada and the United States are set this week to be the first West countries after the UK to initiate inoculation with a recently approved vaccine.

Bird flu spreads to number 10 Japan prefecture

Japan’s worst bird flu outbreak on record spread to new farms and now affects more than 20% of the country’s 47 prefectures, with officials ordering the culling after more birds died. About 11,000 birds will be slaughtered and buried afterwards bird flu was found at an egg farm in the city of Higashiomi in Shiga prefecture in southwestern Japan, the agriculture ministry said over the weekend.

The US CDC reports 296,818 deaths from the coronavirus

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on Sunday reported 15,932,116 new coronavirus cases, an increase of 213,305 from the previous number, and said that the death toll had risen by 2,283 to 296,818. The CDC reported a tally of cases of the respiratory disease known as COVID-19, caused by the new coronavirus, at 4 p.m. AND on December 12 against the previous report the day before.


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