Young girl at a cotton spinning mill in Newberry, South Carolina, circa 1908.No photos of a child labor factory in Switzerland since then Lewis W. Hine
The United Nations has declared 2021 the International Year for the Elimination of Child Labor. Making children work has been banned in Switzerland since the 19th century.
This content is published February 27, 2021 – 11:00 February 27, 2021 – 11:00 Esther Unterfinger
Trained as an illustrated journalist at the MAZ media school in Lucerne. Since 2000 he has worked as an image editor in various media and as a freelance worker. Since 2014 he has joined swissinfo.ch.
More on the author | Multimedia
Lars Gotsch See in other languages: 8
Stolen childhood from “factory kids”
Stolen childhood from “factory kids”
The childhood stolen from the ‘factory boy’
Childhood stolen from factory kids
The long journey to achieve the elimination of child labor
The Years the Swiss Factory Boy Stole
The “factory workers’ children” lose their childhood
The stolen factory children’s childhood
During the industrial revolution, children toiled in Swiss factories until they collapsed. Political outsiders should be grateful for the fact that child labor was banned from an early age.
‘Workers are wanted: Two extended families who work with children who are able to work will be well cared for at the spinning house.’ With this ad placed on the sheets of Anzeiger von Uster, a Swiss factory owner was looking for employees in the 1870s.
Of course the children of workers also have to work. Child labor was not new when the first factories opened, but the industrial revolution turned it from an everyday reality to exploitation.
Farmers and homeworkers saw their children mainly as laborers before the industrial revolution. The family is first and foremost a work unit; working children are essential to their livelihoods.
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A 100-year-old former concentration camp guard has been charged with involvement in 3,518 murders as Germany races to bring surviving Nazi staff to justice, prosecutors told AFP Monday.
The man was accused of “knowingly and willingly” of assisting in the murder of prisoners at the Sachsenhausen camp in Oranienburg, north of Berlin, between 1942 and 1945.
He was deemed fit for trial despite his age, the public prosecutor’s office in the city of Neuruppin confirmed after the story was reported by broadcaster NDR.
The case comes days after German prosecutors charged a former secretary at a Nazi concentration camp with involvement in the murder of 10,000 people, in the first case in years of a woman.
The 95-year-old defendant had worked at the Stutthof camp near Danzig, now Gdansk, in Nazi-occupied Poland.
Germany has been hunting down former Nazi staff since the 2011 sentence of former guard John Demjanjuk on the grounds that he served as part of the Nazi killing machine set a legal precedent.
Since then, courts have convicted several convictions on that basis, not for murder or atrocities directly related to the accused individual.
Among those brought to trial late were Oskar Groening, an accountant at Auschwitz, and Reinhold Hanning, a former SS guard at the same camp. Both were convicted of involvement in the mass murder at the age of 94 but died before they could be jailed.
In the latest verdict, the former SS guard, Bruno Dey, was found guilty at the age of 93 and sentenced to two years probation.
A case was filed against another former guard at Stutthof in July for involvement in the murders of several hundred people.
Research released today shows Kiwis are very optimistic, with living here in New Zealand a major factor behind our optimism.
New Zealand has a fairly good reputation around the world as a beautiful place with great people.
But what do we Kiwis really think about each other and our country?
After the Covid-19 pandemic and the 2020 lockdown, you could be forgiven for thinking people were a little more pessimistic about life.
But research released today shows Kiwis are very optimistic, with living here in New Zealand a major factor behind our optimism.
In a study conducted by Tip Top, 82 percent of respondents described ourselves as optimists, with 9 out of 10 describing New Zealanders as positive.
Regardless of age, gender and wherever you live in the country, the majority are optimistic.
However, those over 60 years of age are the most optimistic and having children also helps you see the bright side of life.
While Covid-19 has caused chaos around the world, 85 percent of Kiwis continue to strive for optimism.
Those surveyed noted three main areas that gave them optimism for 2021.
Eighty-six percent were positive mostly about New Zealand’s natural beauty, 79 percent about our response to Covid-19 and 63 percent about our friendly people.
Only 2 percent said there was nothing to be optimistic about.
Most of those surveyed also believe New Zealand is one of the best countries on Earth.
Associate Professor Chris Krägeloh from the AUT Department of Psychology and Neuroscience said it seemed the Kiwi was ready to tackle the more challenges it faced.
“Research clearly links optimism to well-being and happiness. The results of this survey show that New Zealanders appear ready to face whatever challenges 2021 will present.”
“Of course, the reasons for optimism are mixed, and our predictions for the future are always adjusted depending on what we see in the news.”
Because the Kiwis are feeling more optimistic today than they were six months ago (half said they have improved), the researchers also asked what they were looking forward to this year.
Community, family time, and the Covid-19 vaccine were all named by more than 50 percent of those questioned.
“It appears that New Zealand as a whole is very resilient and may benefit from less disruption to life during the 2020 lockdown than other countries, which will set them well for a positive outlook in 2021,” said Associate Professor Krägeloh.
“Previous international welfare surveys show New Zealand as a relatively quiet country – less socially inclined than people in European countries. This in turn could have a less disruptive effect on last year’s Kiwi social welfare, and a sense of optimism. higher for next year.
“As such, relatively quiet New Zealanders can handle lockdowns better than people in other countries, but of course that doesn’t mean New Zealanders shouldn’t hang out for ice cream, hook up and give each other a boost for the future. “
Other findings include:
• 60 percent of Kiwis are optimistic about New Zealanders working together on things that matter
• 59 percent are optimistic about a Covid-19 vaccine for everyone
• 55 percent are optimistic about spending time with family
• 37 percent said being able to travel to another Covid-19-free country was the thing they were most optimistic about
• 4 out of 10 Kiwis have made New Year’s resolutions – and the more optimistic you are, the more likely you are to make them
• New Zealanders rate their optimism for the next year as 7 out of 10
The survey was conducted between January 7 and 12, with 750 Kiwis over 18 from across the country participating.
With the launch of vaccines around the world, many of us are starting to believe that the nightmare that has become the Covid-19 pandemic is coming to an end.
However, while steps are being taken around the world that will eventually restore a sense of normality, key questions remain unanswered.
How long will it take before life returns to normal? A life that doesn’t involve masks, social distancing, being told to sit in pubs, and Zoom’s parties.
While it is possible that there will be some invisible events that could support or hinder the path to pre-pandemic life, the new calculations roughly predict when they could happen.
Bloomberg has built the largest database of Covid-19 vaccines delivered worldwide and, according to their calculations, it will take seven years.
Crunchers in the publication say it will take that long to reach the top US doctor Anthony Fauci’s estimate for the herd immunity threshold of 75 percent of inoculated people globally.
Vaccination numbers are already fluctuating wildly from country to country, and some countries are expected to reach that threshold sooner.
While we haven’t started the process here in New Zealand yet, some countries, like Israel for example, may reach the threshold in the near future.
The middle eastern country is on track to see 75 percent coverage in the fall but Portugal will need four years, China seven years and Latvia nearly nine years to achieve herd immunity if vaccine distribution doesn’t change. The US is expected to achieve herd immunity in time for New Year’s 2022.
Vaccination rates are likely to change, but there are also possible disruptions – such as supply issues and whether the vaccine is effective against variants such as those emerging in South Africa and Brazil.
Bloomberg experts described the calculations as “volatile” – with global vaccine rollouts already marred by supply disruptions. The disruption occurs with only a third of countries in the world starting vaccine campaigns.
However, the publication notes vaccination rates are expected to increase worldwide as more injections become available – they point to major vaccine manufacturing centers in India and Mexico, and say production has only just begun.
The Bloomberg calculator is based on two doses for the full vaccination and will adjust once a vaccine made by Johnson & Johnson, which requires only one dose, is available. Even though the vaccine hasn’t been approved for children, Bloomberg included it in their calculations because they too can become infected with, and pass on, the virus.
The calculations also do not take into account any levels of natural immunity experienced by those previously exposed to the virus – experts believe some immunity is offered after infection but it is not clear how long it lasts.
Adding to the uncertainty are the differences between developing and developed countries in terms of vaccine access and launches.
It is important to look at the global picture because a pandemic is a global event by definition, so if a country does not achieve herd immunity, the virus can survive there as well as be exported to other countries, risking an international revival.
Concerned about what has happened so far, the World Health Organization last night issued a request for vaccine makers to dramatically increase production.
WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus told reporters that while the number of Covid-19 vaccines given (115 million) has now surpassed the number of infections worldwide (104 million), more than three-quarters of injections have been distributed to just 10 rich people. country.
“Nearly 130 countries, with 2.5 billion people, have not given a single dose,” complained Tedros.
“Unless we suppress the virus everywhere, we can end up back at square one,” said the WHO chief, calling on vaccine manufacturers to implement “a massive increase in production.”
Even in developed regions like Europe – the worst affected region in the world – there are still problems.
There have been 760,000 deaths related to the virus in Europe. The slow rollout of the vaccine has sparked public outrage and plunged the bloc leadership into crisis.
EU member states need to work more closely with drug companies to increase the speed of inoculation, said the WHO regional head.
“We need to join forces to speed up vaccinations,” WHO Europe director Hans Kluge told AFP in an interview.
“Otherwise, competing pharmaceutical companies (must) make efforts to increase production capacity drastically … that’s what we need.” Despite the troubled start to the vaccine launch in the 27-nation block, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and French President Emmanuel Macron defended the Brussels strategy.
“I fully support the European approach,” Macron said at an online press conference after talks with Merkel. “What would people say if countries like France and Germany were competing with each other on vaccines?” “It will be messy, and counter productive,” he said.