Tag Archives: Cardiovascular disease

Ultraprocessed Foods Again Associated with Increased CVD, Death | Instant News


Yet other studies have linked consumption of ultraprocessed foods, or “junk” foods, with poor health outcomes.

In a longitudinal analysis of more than 22,000 men and women from southern Italy, those consuming the most ultraprocessed foods (UPF) had the highest risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes of death, likely mediated through a high-sugar diet, the researchers said.

High UPF consumption in this Mediterranean cohort was associated with a 58% increased risk for CVD mortality and a 52% higher risk of death. ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular causes, regardless of known risk factors for CVD, even among individuals following a Mediterranean diet.

The findings “should serve as an incentive to limit UPF consumption and encourage natural or minimally processed foods, as recommended by several national nutrition policies,” Marialaura Bonaccio, PhD, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS NEUROMED, ​​Pozzilli, Italy, and colleagues. writing. The result published online December 18 at American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Earlier this year, as reported by Medscape Medical News, the researchers found a lot of evidence that obesity epidemics and an increased incidence of chronic conditions are associated with increased intake of UPF.

A study conducted in a European cohort found that adults whose diets included more UPF and beverages, such as ice cream, soda, and hamburgers, were more likely to develop CVD or die sooner than other people who had a healthier diet.

As previously reported by theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology, among French adults who had a 10% higher intake of UPF and drink, rates of CVD, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease were 11% to 13% higher over a period of about 5 years.

Likewise, university graduates in Spain who consumed more than four servings of UPF and drinks every day were 62% more likely to die from any cause for about a decade than those who consumed less than two servings per day.

Where’s the food?

The actual food at UPF is minimal. The NOVA classification provides 4 main classes of food and beverage, the last one being represented by the ultra processed food group (UPF). It consists of products (e.g. snacks, drinks, and ready-to-eat food, ‘made mostly or entirely from substances extracted from food or derived from food constituents with little, if any whole food, which often contain flavors, colors, and other additives. that mimic or enhance the sensory qualities of food or culinary preparations made from food, ‘”wrote Bonaccio and colleagues.

Such food is very convenient, tasty, inexpensive and has a long shelf life. They are highly competitive with foods that are naturally ready to eat and freshly prepared dishes and meals, add the authors.

Researchers performed a longitudinal analysis of 22,475 men and women (mean age, 55 years; range, 43-67 years) recruited from the Moli-sani Study, a population-based cohort of men and women aged 35 years and over in the Molise region of Italy. south, between 2005 and 2010. Participants were followed for 8.2 years.

Food intake was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire; The UPF is defined using the NOVA classification according to the level of processing.

The UPF intake is categorized as a quartile of the ratio of the UPF to total food consumed.

Overall, study participants reported a median of 10% (interquartile range, 6.6% – 14.6%) of food intake as UPF and a total of 181.5 g / day of UPF intake.

The food that gave the biggest contribution to the total UPF consumed was processed meat, which was 19.8% of the UPF intake; pizza (16.8%); and cakes and pies (13.4%).

High UPF consumers, defined as those with a UPF of more than 14.6% of their total diet, are more likely to be female, younger, and have a higher level of education. They also reported fewer risk factors and fewer chronic diseases and underlying health conditions than people who took UPF less frequently.

In addition, high UPF consumption was associated with lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet; higher intake of fat, sugar, dietary cholesterol, and sodium; but lower fiber intake.

During a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 1,216 all-cause deaths occurred. Of these, 439 were associated with CVD, 255 IHD / cerebrovascular diseases, 477 cancers, and 300 other causes.

The more UPF, the higher the risk of CVD, death

The investigators found a direct linear dose-response relationship between a 5% increase in the proportion of UPF in the diet and the risk for all-cause and mortality of CVD.

Individuals reporting highest UPF intake (fourth quartile [Q4], 14.6% of the total diet) compared to the lowest (Q1, UPF <6.6%) had an increased risk of CVD death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.58; 95% CI, 1.23 - 2.03), death from IHD / cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.52, 95% CI, 1.10 - 2.09), and all causes of death (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09 - 1.46).

High sugar levels accounted for 36.3% of the UPF association with IHD / cerebrovascular mortality. Other nutritional factors, such as saturated fat, may not have played a role, the researchers wrote.

Renal function biomarkers accounted for 20.1% of the UPF association with all-cause mortality and 12.0% for UPF with CVD mortality.

Subgroup analyzes showed that the magnitude of the association between UPF and all-cause risk of death was greater among high-risk individuals, such as those with a history of CVD or diabetes. UPF may also be more closely related to CVD mortality among these high-risk groups.

The interesting finding that the association between UPF mortality and CVD was greater among individuals with good adherence to the Mediterranean diet, which is known to have health benefits, can be explained by the fact that people who might benefit from a Mediterranean diet are more prone to lose health benefits when they also included “adverse dietary behavior,” whereas those who ate a poor quality diet were less likely to be harmed by additional unhealthy behaviors such as eating UPF regularly, Bonaccio and colleagues wrote.

“This is an exciting study confirming that consumption of processed foods such as pizza, processed meats, and soda is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease,” Walter Willett, MD, professor of epidemiology and nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, was told theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology.

“This higher risk appears to be mediated in part by a high intake of saturated fat and sugar, but a lower intake of the health-enhancing aspects of the diet also most likely contributed to these findings,” Willett said.

“Some food processing can be useful for the preservation and control of infectious agents, but in general, a diet that emphasizes minimally processed fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, legumes, and vegetable fat sources would be best. for long-term health to be, “he said.

This study was partially supported by the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian Association for Cancer Research HYPERCAN Study. Bonaccio and Willett report no relevant financial relationship.

Am J Clin Nutr. Published online 18 December 2020. Abstract

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Secured study finds men are more likely to develop high blood pressure | Instant News


Working people with high incomes are more likely to develop high blood pressure, according to the study, whose results were presented at the 84th annual scientific meeting of the Japanese circulation society (joint 2020).

More than one billion people have high blood pressure worldwide. About 30-45% of adults depends on, rising to more than 60% of people over the age of 60 years. High blood pressure is a major cause of premature death, accounting for nearly 10 million deaths in 2015. Of these, 4.9 million were due to coronary heart disease and 3.5 million-because of the stroke.

Only Japan has more than 10 million people with high blood pressureand this figure continues to grow. “People with higher incomes should improve your lifestyle to prevent high blood pressure,” said study author Dr. Shingo services Hokkaido University graduate school of medicine, Sapporo, Japan. “High blood pressure is a disease of lifestyle. As a physician seeing these patients, I would like to know if the risk depends on the socio-economic classes, to help us focus our efforts on prevention.”

The analysis in J-HOPE3 of the study examined the relationship between the level of household income and high blood pressure in Japanese workers. A total of 4,314 employees (3,153 men and women 1,161) with a day job and normal blood pressure were enrolled in 2012, of the 12 jobs.

The workers were divided into four groups depending on annual income: no more than 5 million, from 5 million to 7.9, 8 to 9.9 million, And 10 million or more Japanese yen per year. Researchers examined the Association between income and the development of high blood pressure during the two-year period.

Compared with men in the lowest income categories, people in the highest income group were almost twice as likely to develop high blood pressure. Men 5 million to 7.9 8 to 9.9 million groups have 50% increased risk of developing high blood pressure compared to men with low incomes, although the positive Association did not reach statistical significance in the 8-9,9 million groups.

The results were consistent regardless of age, and was independent of initial blood pressure, workplace, profession, number of family members, and Smoking. The relationship was slightly attenuated after accounting for alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), both of which were also higher among men in groups with higher incomes.

In women there was no significant Association between income and blood pressure. However, women with high-income households tend to have a lower risk of developing high blood pressure.

“Some previous Japanese survey reported that growth in household income is associated with more undesirable lifestyle in men, but not women,” said Dr services. “Our research confirms it: men, but not women, with higher household income were more likely to be obese and to drink alcohol every day. Both behaviours are major risk factors for hypertension”.

He concluded: “men with high-paying jobs the daytime, particularly at risk of high blood pressure. This applies to men of all ages, which can greatly reduce their chance of heart attack or stroke by improving their health behavior.”

Dr. Yusuke between Yoshikawa, public relations coordinator at AO 2020, said: “hypertension is one of the most important risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in Japan, because the average daily salt intake in Japan (approx. 10 g/day) was significantly higher than we would like. As current guidelines strongly recommend a healthy lifestyle to control high blood pressure, this study shows the potential key to successful intervention for those at risk of heart disease and stroke”.

“The steps include healthy eating, exercise and weight control. Alcohol should be kept to moderate levels and avoid binge drinking,” says Dr. services.

Professor Michel Komajda, former President of the ESC and program Director ESC JSC 2020, said: “Eurovision is pleased to be part of the JCMS 2020 in Kyoto. We value our special partnership with JCS and high quality Japanese studies. Japan is among the authors of abstracts to the Congress ESC”.(Ani)

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Early menstruation linked to increased symptoms of menopause: study | health news | Instant News


Queensland (Australia): Early menstruation increases the likelihood of hot flushes and night sweats a few decades later during menopause, according to the study. A study led by University of Queensland researchers published in BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynecology.

School of public health researchers analyzed data from more than 18,000 middle-aged women in the UK, USA and Australia in the approach to life and to reproductive health and chronic disease (interlace) international cooperation.

IO Dr. Hsin-Chung Fang said that the study found women who started menstruating at age 11 or younger are 50 percent higher risk of experiencing frequent hot flashes and night sweats known as vasomotor symptoms in menopause. The group was compared to women who had their first period at age 14 or older.

“The risk of those women who were previously menstruating, experiencing both symptoms were more than you have hot flashes or night sweats alone,” said Dr. Chung.

She said that early menstruation were previously associated with adverse health conditions later in life including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Project Manager intertwine Professor Gita Mishra said obesity played a significant role in the results.

“Women who experienced early menstruation and were overweight or obese in middle age were two times at greater risk of frequent hot flashes and night sweats, compared with women who experienced their first period at age 14 years or older, had normal weight,” she said.

“These findings encourage women with early menstruation to participate in health promotion programs, especially weight loss in adulthood,” Professor Mishra said.

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UQ research shows hot flashes and night sweats tied to heart attacks in women | Instant News


Women who suffer from hot flashes and night sweats after menopause, 70% more likely to have a heart attack, angina or stroke.

A new study from the University of Queensland (UQ) showed women of any age who are experiencing these symptoms, also known as vasomotor symptoms and SMS, there is a high likelihood of non-fatal cardiovascular events.

The risk increases by 40 percent for women who have not yet gone through menopause.

School of public health students PhD doctor Dongshan, Zhu said it is still unclear whether WM was related to heart disease.

“But now we know it’s true,” said Dr. Zhu.

Dr. Zhu explained the risk of cardiovascular events to a greater extent related to the severity of the hot flashes and night sweats, but not frequency or duration.

“We found women with severe VMS were more than twice as likely to experience a nonfatal cardiovascular event compared with women who had no symptoms,” he said.

In the study, scientists at UQ have examined the data from nearly 24,000 women living in Australia, USA or UK. They were surveyed and observed in age 40 years and again at age 60.

Senior author, Professor Gita Mishra, said that the findings may have a significant impact on women who need clinical treatment.

“This study helps to identify women who are at high risk of cardiovascular events and who may require careful monitoring in clinical practice,” she said.

Prof Misra said the NCA women’s News feed were more at risk to suffer from cardiovascular events either before or after the transition of menopause, but not menopause.

However, researchers still are not sure why hot flashes and night sweats associated with cardiovascular disease in women, but hormones had something to do with it.

“There are many hormonal changes that occur during menopause and they can act in complex ways to influence long-term health – therefore, the biological mechanisms at work is still the subject of modern research,” she said.

Researchers believe these symptoms of menopause can act as an early indicator of the future of women’s cardiovascular health.

“Those with severe symptoms before or after menopause may require careful monitoring of their GP. It is important to remember that this is just about the increased danger”, – said the Professor.

She also urged women to take the necessary steps to reduce their risk in other ways such as maintaining a healthy weight, proper nutrition and exercise.

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Symptomatic COVID-19 patients tend to be smokers | Instant News


When the COVID-19 pandemic rages in many parts of the world, a new study shows that smoking may not play an important role in increasing the severity of the disease in these patients. This study was published on a preprinted server medRxiv* in May 2020.

It is now known that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19 disease, is more likely to cause severe pneumonia which often causes severe acute respiratory distress, multi-organ dysfunction, or both, causing Dead. Predisposing factors for serious or critical illness include older age, underlying medical conditions such as asthma, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

However, does active smoking increase the risk? Little is known about the role of this factor, which is driving current research.

Smoking Can Increase Viral Entry – But What Is It?

Smoking increases the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) molecules in smokers’ tissues. ACE2 is known as the main receptor for viral attachment and entry into host cells in humans. Logically, it seems that smoking increases the risk of infection.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE-2 receptors in human cells, the initial stage of COVID-19 infection. Image Credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

However, some studies contradict this assumption, on the contrary showing the opposite. In Chinese studies, for example, only about 1.4% to 12.6% of COVID-19 patients are smokers. Likewise, only about 5% of New York patients, who are part of a very severe outbreak, are smokers.

Compared with national smoking statistics in the two countries, respectively around 25% and 17%, as taken from https://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/smokingrates-by-country, this is so low that the absence of direct links becomes clear. Current research is driven by the need to examine the existence of an inverse relationship between smoking and the possibility of infection with COVID-19.

How was the Smoking-COVID-19 Research conducted?

The researchers conducted a retrospective study of about 440 patients with COVID-19, all admitted sequentially to the tertiary level center in Parma, Italy. All of them have confirmed infection with nasopharyngeal swabs proved positive with the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR).

The researchers took demographic, clinical, laboratory, and death data from hospital electronic health records. They also attempted to confirm smoking data with direct contact with patients or their relatives, in 423 of 441 cases.

What does the Cigarette Study show about COVID-19?

The results showed that about 62% of patients were male, and the median age was 71 years. 35% of patients died during their hospital stay, with 65% excluded after clinical recovery.

About 5% of them actively smoked at the time of the study, while 10% were smokers but had quit. The rest are not smokers.

With a closer analysis of clinical characteristics, it was observed that more men died from this disease. Although they constitute 62% of the total patients, they account for 72% of deaths and only 59% of survivors. Those who died were also older, at an average age of 76 years, compared to 67 years for those who survived. However, this is not statistically significant.

Again, the presence of certain medical diseases that coexist is significantly more common among deaths. For example, patients with a history of cardiovascular disease each contribute 21% and 10% of those who die and survive.

While hypertension was present in 61% and 56% of deaths and survivors, respectively, while diabetes was present in 26% and 18% respectively, this was not significant.

The median level of D-dimers, which is a marker of inflammation, is almost double the value in those who die compared to those who survive. There was a much smaller but significant increase in the median level of C-reactive protein, which also increased inflammation, among those who died.

However, with smoking, around 6% and 4% of those who die and live are current smokers, which means there is no significant difference. Similarly, the number of former smokers and never smokers was almost identical in the two groups.

What Does This Study Mean for People Affected by COVID-19?

Italy has experienced the second highest number of COVID-19 deaths in the European Union (EU). However, in this retrospective study, only 5% of smokers patients currently, even though the prevalence of the smoking population is 24% in Italy. This finding, therefore, agrees with previous research in China and the US.

This study did not include asymptomatic patients by design, and therefore the conclusions should be limited to cases of COVID-19 hospitalized or symptomatic.

The researchers said, “Current research shows that smokers can carry several types of protective mechanisms from symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections.” However, as scientists have warned, carefully designed controlled studies alone can validate this impression.

The mechanism underlying the low prevalence of smoking in the population of COVID-19 patients treated in this hospital is purely speculative at this time. For example, exposure to cigarette smoke can suppress the immune response, which contributes to low systemic inflammation compared to those who have never smoked.

By modulating the normal intensity and spectrum of the immune system against viruses, due to “continuous inflammatory insults,” cytokine storms may be less likely to occur in COVID-19 patients, making them less susceptible to severe or symptomatic disease.

The importance of ensuring the protective role for smoking in this pandemic is that, according to the researchers, “it can help uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying predisposition to SARS-CoV-2 infection, then also potentially being exploited by newly designed protective drugs. “

* Important Notification

medRxiv publish initial scientific reports that are not reviewed by colleagues and, therefore, should not be considered conclusive, guide clinical practice / health-related behaviors, or be treated as pre-existing information.

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