Tag Archives: change

The Pacific Islands must stop relying on foreign aid to adapt to climate change, because the money will not last long | Instant News


Author: Patrick D. Nunn

(MENAFN – Conversation) The storms of climate change are approaching the Pacific Islands. Its impact has been greatly strengthened by decades of global inertia and the increasing dependence of islands in developed countries.

The background of this situation is very easy. For a long time, richer developed countries have borne the costs of climate change in poorer developing countries, making them dependent on Western solutions to their climate-related problems.

Read more: Their fate is not sealed: Pacific nations can survive climate change – if the local population takes the lead

But as rising sea water continues to penetrate these low Pacific islands, flooding infrastructure and even gravesites, it is clear that almost every externally sponsored effort for climate adaptation has failed here.

And as the costs of adaptation in rich countries increase, this funding support to developing countries is likely to decrease in the future.

We have been researching climate change adaptation in the Pacific for more than 50 years. We think this trend is not only unsustainable, but also dangerous. Pacific Island countries must start drawing from traditional knowledge to adapt to climate change, rather than continuing to rely on foreign funds.




High waves destroy this sea wall in Majuro Atoll (Marshall Islands). Patrick Nunn, the author provided Western solutions do not always work

On a global scale, climate adaptation strategies are for the most part ineffective or unsustainable.

This is especially so in non-Western contexts, where Western science continues to be privileged. In the Pacific Islands, this often happens because these Western strategies are always inferior to subordinates, even ignoring, funding worldviews based on recipient culture.

A good example is the desire of foreign donors to build hard structures, such as sea walls, to protect eroded beaches. This is the preferred strategy in rich countries.

But it does not include nature-based solutions such as replanting coastal mangroves, which can be more easily maintained in a worse context.

Possible scenario

The availability of external financial assistance means developing countries are becoming more dependent on their wealthier counterparts for climate change adaptation.

For example, between 2016 and 2019, Australia provided A $ 300 million to help Pacific Island countries adapt to climate change, committed to $ 500 million until 2025. This left little need or incentive for these countries to fund their own adaptation needs .

Read more: Pacific Islanders will no longer be resistant to Australia’s slowness about climate change

But imagine this climate change scenario. Ten years from now, unprecedented rainfall has been dumped on Australia’s east coast for a long time. Some cities become flooded and remain so for weeks.

As a result, the Australian government is struggling to make the area that was recently flooded once more habitable. They built a series of massive coastal embankments to prevent rising seas from flooding populated areas.

The costs are exorbitant and unpredictable – like COVID-19 – so the government will find ways to mess up the money. This might include reducing financial assistance for climate change adaptation in poor countries.

Plunge in international aid

Economic modeling shows countries will bear the great costs of this century to adapt to climate change within their own borders. So, rich countries that are almost inevitable will rethink the extent of their assistance to developing countries.




The latest Australian GDP and projected aid for adaptation to the Pacific Island. country. Patrick Nunn, the author provided

In fact, even before the pandemic, Australia’s foreign aid budget was projected to reduce significantly by almost 12% from 2020 to 2023.

These factors do not bode well for developing countries, which will face higher costs of climate adaptation and reduced foreign aid.

Read more: Australia spends less on diplomacy than ever before – and its influence has suffered greatly

Building autonomy with ‘adaptation without cash’

The leaders of developing countries must anticipate this situation now, and reverse their dependence on outside assistance.

For example, rural communities in areas such as the Pacific Islands can revive the use of ‘cashless adaptation’. This means developing ways of adjusting livelihoods to climate change that don’t require money.

These methods include the deliberate planting of surplus crops, the use of traditional methods of food preservation and storage of water, the use of locally available materials free of charge and labor to build marine defenses. And that might even include the recognition that living along the coast makes you unnecessary to weather-related changes.

Before globalization, this was what happened for decades, even centuries, in places like the rural islands of the Pacific. Then, adaptation to a changing environment is supported by cooperation with one another and the use of freely available materials, not by cash.




The flooding in Sydney earlier this year was a sense of global warming. AAP Image / Joel Carrett

The researchers also argued for a strategy of ‘waiting for the past’ regarding Hawaii’s climate adaptation.

And research from last year in Fiji shows more rural communities still have and use traditional methods to anticipate and withstand disasters, such as floods and drought.

Read more: Five years after the earthquake in Bhaktapur, Nepal, recovery led by relics united the community

We can take this argument further. Maybe it’s time for the Pacific Islands countries to rediscover traditional medicines, at least for primary health care, to complement western medicine.

Greater production and consumption of locally grown food, more than imported food, is also an important and valuable transformation.

The future of the developing world




Dirak faluw (‘the house of men’) in the Village of Questions in Yap (Micronesia) is. built by community workers using locally available materials. Roselyn Kumar, author provided

The need for countries to adapt to unexpected phenomena such as climate change and COVID-19 encourages de-globalization – including that countries are less dependent on cross-border assistance and economic activity. So, it seems inevitable that in the current global situation, smaller economies will be forced to become more efficient and independent.

Restoring traditional adaptation strategies will not only encourage effective and sustainable climate change adaptation, but will also restore the confidence of the population in their own predetermined ways of dealing with environmental shocks.

This not only means finding ways to reduce costs through adaptation without cash, but also to explore radical ways to reduce dependency and increase autonomy. Calls for past practice, and traditional ways of coping, are worth considering.

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Louis Mobile Food Market will be in your Community in Partnership with St. Louis. Louis Area Foodbank Listing for August 1 – 21 | Instant News




Louis Mobile Food Market will be in your Community in Partnership with St. Louis Area Foodbank Listing for August 1 – 21 | RiverBender.com





















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The mass gave a clear mandate for change 2 years ago: Aleem | Instant News


LAHORE – Senior Punjab Minister Abdul Aleem Khan said that the process of change in the country had begun from the top with a clear reduction in corruption in the last two years.

He added that those in power did not establish private factories nor did they give gifts to their relatives from the national treasury or form royal families.

Speaking of the settlement two years after the general election (July 25), Senior Punjab Minister Abdul Aleem Khan said that Prime Minister Imran Khan had saved millions of rupees from the national treasurer by not setting up a camp office and not spending government money on foreign trips like the previous rulers.

He said that July 25 was also impressive in this regard when the people in the country had given a clear mandate in supporting change through the power of the vote and by choosing Prime Minister Imran Khan they had proven their sanity.

Aleem said that money laundering and building overseas property in the last two years have also been stopped and instead of using taxpayers’ money for development and the PTI Government laid the foundation of a new Pakistan in these two years.

Aleem further said that despite financial and other difficulties in the past two years, the country has moved forward, Prime Minister Imran Khan has taken a clear example on his election agenda.

He said that global epidemics such as corona have been better handled under the current leadership of Prime Minister Imran Khan’s strategy for COVD-19 has proven true with the passage of time.

He said that the expenditure of government institutions including the Prime Minister’s Building had significantly reduced.

Aleem said that in the past two years, kinship and family politics had not been promoted in this country and there was no personal supervision of government money.

Aleem Khan swears that in Sha Allah, the next three years will be spent implementing party manifestos, alleviating people’s problems and moving the country on the path of true development and prosperity.

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Tank CJ shows the performance of the concerned law officer | Instant News


Lahore:Lahore High court chief justice Muhammad Qasim Khan on Wednesday showed concern about the poor performance of the Federal law officer in a case pertaining to change the name of Benazir income support programme (BISP) and directed the law Minister, the law and the attorney-General to draw the attention of ill-preparedness by the Deputy Prosecutor General.

The court after hearing the petition of the President of the PPP Punjab Qamar Zaman Cairo, the first Chairman of the BISP, referring to the fact that this program was started under legal cover after the then Parliament passed a law, namely the “Benazir income support act of 2010 program”.He said that the present government illegally changed the name of the BISP program Ehsaas. Kaira presented in the petition that the name of the program cannot be changed without amending the law and this exercise has not been done by Parliament. He noted that the government had not presented any bill in the Parliament to amend the law.

He asked the court to postpone the government’s decision to change the name of BISP and to restrain him from committing any illegal changes to the law. In Wednesday’s hearing, chief justice Khan asked a Deputy attorney General Israr Malik, as if no rules were issued under the program Ehsas.

Officer, the law says that the policy for the new program. CJ found the answer unsatisfactory and the employee said that he appeared in court without any training. CJ asked the law officer, law Secretary and the attorney-General to consider this matter at the departmental level.

Doug Israr told the court that he was not familiar with the case as it appeared on the site Doug Asad Ali Bajwa, who previously represented the government. However, the CJ noted that the law officer had informed the court and asked him now to explain his position before the Department. The CJ adjourned the meeting for two weeks.

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Bayer launches carbon capture program for farmers in the US and Brazil | Instant News


CHICAGO (Reuters) – Bayer AG launched a pilot program in the United States and Brazil on Tuesday that will pay farmers to capture carbon on farmland, making it the latest farming company to work to take advantage of environmental initiatives.

PHOTO FILE: A bridge decorated with the Bayer AG logo, German pharmaceutical and chemical maker in Wuppertal, Germany August 9, 2019. REUTERS / Wolfgang Rattay / Photo File

The company is trying to register around 1,200 row crop growers in the Bayer Carbon Initiative in the first season, with the aim to improve in the coming season and eventually expand to other countries, company executives said.

This program is the latest in a series of environmental-focused initiatives recently by agricultural companies, which have been criticized for using hazardous chemicals and not doing enough to stop deforestation in Brazil.

Bayer is working with other partners including Embrapa Brasil, a government plant research agency, to build a market for the trade in carbon credits created, executives said.

Global commodity trader Cargill Inc. [CARG.UL] started the project this spring by targeting greenhouse gas emissions and fertilizer runoff in Iowa, while the agricultural cooperative Land O’Lakes Inc. [LNDLK.UL] last week announced a multi-year partnership with Microsoft Corp to address the goals of sustainability and technology in the food system.

The announcement was issued after the US Treasury Department in May clarified a federal tax credit designed to spur investment in carbon capture and sequestration projects.

The Bayer program requires farmers to register on the Climate FieldView digital agriculture platform, where farmers will record data on their environmentally friendly agricultural practices such as non-cropping or cover crop farming. The claim can then be verified by satellite imagery.

Bayer will compensate farmers for absorbing carbon and paying them in cash or credit to buy products on the Bayer PLUS award platform.

“If farmers absorb carbon for the benefit of the people and the planet, they must be rewarded for it,” Brett Begemann, chief operating officer of the Science Crop division, told Reuters.

He refused to reveal the cost of the program, and said the value of sequestered carbon would be determined by the market.

“In the end, we must have a clear line of sight that this must contribute to the bottom line of Bayer and benefit our shareholders as well.”

Reporting by Karl Plume; Editing by Sandra Maler

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Pakistan responds to UN goals on climate change for the decade ahead of the time | Instant News


Islamabad: although among the countries most vulnerable to global warming, Pakistan passed an important milestone on the path to environmental protection at the meeting of the main sustainable development United Nations objective 13, which calls for urgent action to combat climate change and its effects for 10 years before his time, reveals a UN report on sustainable development 2020.

In the report, which was formerly called the index of the SDG & panels, is an annual global evaluation of the progress of countries in achieving sustainable development Goals. It is a complement to official SDG indicators and voluntary national reviews.

Advisor to Prime Minister on climate change Malik Amin Aslam said at a meeting of SDG 13 country, and that, too, long before the 2030 deadline for a landmark event to achieve other goals, including poverty eradication and hunger, ensuring the quality of medical care, education, clean water and sanitation for people, gender equality and justice, and peace.

“By achieving climate action SDG 13, Pakistan has proved that it is committed to the global effort to combat climate change, to protect life on planet Earth,” he told reporters here.

The allocation of public initiatives to combat climate change, Malik Amin said, the adoption and implementation of various low-carbon growth trajectory, mitigation and adaptation initiatives paved the way for the country to achieve UN action goal 13 and that, too, for 10 years before his time.

He noted the important initiatives included 10 billion tree tsunami programme, clean and green Pakistan initiative, pure green Pakistan index, protected areas initiative, the ecosystem restoration Fund to facilitate the transition to environmentally sustainable Pakistan on mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation on the basis of ecologically-targeted initiatives such as afforestation, conservation of biological diversity, improvement of environmental policies in accordance with the objectives of Pakistan, nationally-determined contribution and the achievement of land degradation neutrality.

According to adviser to the Prime Minister, the climate risk index 2020, the organization Germanwatch, a sustainable development advocacy group, ranked Pakistan in the long term, ranking fifth among the countries most affected by extreme weather events.

The index shows Pakistan among 10 countries most affected by climate change in the last 20 years thanks to its geographical position. Malik Amin said, given the economic damage is estimated in the index organization Germanwatch 2020 3.8 million dollars, Pakistan was ranked number three in long-term assessment over a 20-year period (1999-2028).

“This means that our economy is at risk from climate disasters, and it is not only an environmental problem but also a problem that affects our economy, health, agriculture and ecosystems,” said he, adding that the government has taken a number of policy measures, management and operational levels in order to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change in the country.

The assistant to the Prime Minister said that the climate crisis affects all countries and Pakistan is no exception from the point of view of the consequences of the crisis and increased vulnerability to him.

“Global warming is destroying not only national economies that affect the lives and welfare of the people and country dearly today and even more tomorrow. Because of the soaring climate change carbon emissions in the world, people and communities have a considerable human impact in the result of climate change, including rapidly changing weather conditions, rising sea levels, heat, drought, expanding desertification, forest fires, cyclones, off-season rains and torrential floods,” he said.

Malik Amin said that carbon emission is at its highest levels in the history of mankind and on the rise, the average temperature of the Earth’s surface, according to forecasts, will rise in the 21st century if serious actions were taken.

He, however, stressed that there are available to mitigate the consequences and the solutions available and should be adopted and extended to enable countries to move to cleaner, more resilient economies. “Turning to renewable energy, as well as a number of other measures that will reduce emissions and increase adaptation efforts is an important step forward as part of real climate action,” he said.

Prime Minister’s adviser said that Pakistan has also begun the transformation of China Pakistan economic corridor the China-Pakistan economic corridor green and put 2740MW imported coal projects signed by the previous government, and replace them with a zero carbon and indigenous hydel projects 3700MW potential.

“This paradigm shift demonstrates the commitment of this government a favorable climate for the growth and sustainable development, which is good not only for Pakistan, but also useful for the whole world,” he said.

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Amendments to the 18th Amand must be discussed with an open heart: Asad | Instant News


ISLAMABAD: Minister of Planning Asad Umar said several gaps had arisen related to coordination between the Center and the provinces after the 18th Amendment scenario so that bringing about changes should be discussed with open hearts.

Leaving aside the possibility of minus-one formula, the minister said PTI could be overthrown through minus-one but in the presence of a majority of PTI, no one could topple Imran Khan with a minus formula because of his 99 vote banks.

“The 18th Amendment and NFC Award must reflect each other because responsibility must be given in accordance with the distribution of resources. Both the 18th Amendment and NFC Award must be discussed at the national level with an open heart, “Asad Umar said in an exclusive interview with The News.

The Minister said that the gap existed in coordination and that was realized after the NCOC meeting. He said if there was no proper coordination about the right health facilities then how planning could be done to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic.

When asked about the minus-one formula, he said that he didn’t know where this came from. “How can you topple Imran Khan with a formula like that when 99 percent of his PTI vote bank,” he questioned? He said that he listened to minus one for the past 12 years when Asif Ali Zardari was president under the PPP regime, there was a minus one formula. The phenomenon continued when Nawaz Sharif came to power and now Imran Khan was in power and the same mantra continued.

Asad Umar said that there was a need to broadcast debates about Geo and other TV channels by candidates during the US primary election campaign so Pakistanis would know how they called and treated each other. “The same thing was done in Britain during their election campaign,” he said. The Minister said that in Pakistan the Parliament is functioning so there is nothing to worry about.

To the question why PTI ministers issued differences publicly, the minister said that everyone knew about Shahbaz and Nisar and Nisar’s relations with other PML-N ministers, but they did not openly oppose each other. He said the PTI was a democratic party where everyone talked about from the core of his heart. “All this is like a storm in a teacup, otherwise our government is much better than PML-N,” he said.

When asking him to mention the self-reformation introduced by PTI during his reign, he mentioned that the Pakistan Post Office experienced a lot of improvements and port operations were smooth. He said that this was the first time in the country’s history that three giant hydroelectric projects including the Dasu dam, Mohmand and Diamer-Bhasha were being built. He said the government was clearing land acquisition with more than Rs100 billion and now this dam will be completed in 2027.

For other questions about ongoing disputes between Gilgit-Baltistan and the KP government regarding land disputes where the Bhasha Dam power plant will be carried out so that land determination will resolve royalty rights, the minister said that he led the committee and had done his homework. However, he said, there would be elections due to the GB and when their new government would come to power a decision would be made on this issue.

When asked about the restructuring plan to the Planning Commission, the minister said that no restructuring plan was considered, but efforts were underway to build a good talented team.

He said that Prime Minister Imran Khan wanted to change the Planning Commission to the 60s model while working under Mehboobul Haq. After frequently obtaining IMF programs, he said that the Ministry of Finance was in control of policy making under the IMF program. He said that now the Ministry of Planning will be strengthened by developing a good team.

He said the government had decided to hire the chief economist for the Planning Commission and the chief statistician for the Statistics Bureau of Pakistan (PBS) on a special wage scale (SPS). It is relevant to mention here that these two key posts have been vacant for several years and cannot be filled in the last two years of PTI regulations.

The Minister was also asked about the money-bleeding power sector by asking how it would be improved, he replied that without putting in place a market-based mechanism, the problems of the power sector could not be fixed in a hurry. He said the best professionals must be employed at the Gencos and Disco level to bring efficiency.

However, the minister said that these two key positions will be filled in the first quarter of the current fiscal year.

To another question regarding the full recovery of economic activity in a post-COVID-19 pandemic situation, he said it would be difficult to predict, but it was the best strategy put in place by the Pakistani government as a country adopting an extreme lockout approach or one that had completely subsided, both facing problems , however, Pakistan is doing smart locking that is going very well. He said that it was the government’s conscious decision to open the export sector first because the government knew that the country was unable to bear the sharp decline in its export earnings.

Ministers said that they analyzed the IMF’s recent estimates and the IMF changed its estimate of Pakistan from negative to 1 percent positive for the current fiscal year. He said it all happened because of the policy to move forward with smart locking.

Asad Umar said Pakistan would not get relief in Net Present Value (NPV) because of the debt reduction from the international community because the loan repayment was delayed for a certain period of time but was not written off. He said Pakistan must stand on its own feet to revive its economy because this pandemic has hit everyone.

The Minister also said that despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ministry of Planning used more than 80 percent of development funding, indicating that its utilization has remained more than the past six years.

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Pakistan meets the objective of climate change for the decade ahead of the time | Instant News


Islamabad : although among the countries most vulnerable to global warming, Pakistan passed an important milestone on the path to environmental protection at the meeting of the main sustainable development United Nations objective 13, which calls for urgent action to combat climate change and its effects for 10 years before his time, reveals a UN report on sustainable development 2020.

In the report, which was formerly called the index of the SDG & panels, is an annual global evaluation of the progress of countries in achieving sustainable development Goals. It is a complement to official SDG indicators and voluntary national reviews.

Advisor to Prime Minister on climate change Malik Amin Aslam said at a meeting of SDG 13 country, and that, too, long before the 2030 deadline for a landmark event to achieve other goals, including poverty eradication and hunger, ensuring the quality of medical care, education, clean water and sanitation for people, gender equality and justice, and peace.

“By achieving climate action SDG 13, Pakistan has proved that it is committed to the global effort to combat climate change, to protect life on planet Earth,” he told reporters here.

The allocation of public initiatives to combat climate change, Malik Amin said, the adoption and implementation of various low-carbon growth trajectory, mitigation and adaptation initiatives paved the way for the country to achieve UN action goal 13 and that, too, for 10 years before his time.

He noted the important initiatives included 10 billion tree tsunami programme, clean and green Pakistan initiative, pure green Pakistan index, protected areas initiative, the ecosystem restoration Fund to facilitate the transition to environmentally sustainable Pakistan on mainstreaming adaptation and mitigation on the basis of ecologically-targeted initiatives such as afforestation, conservation of biological diversity, improvement of environmental policies in accordance with the objectives of Pakistan, nationally-determined contribution and the achievement of land degradation neutrality.

According to adviser to the Prime Minister, the climate risk index 2020, the organization Germanwatch, a sustainable development advocacy group, ranked Pakistan in the long term, ranking fifth among the countries most affected by extreme weather events.

The index shows Pakistan among 10 countries most affected by climate change in the last 20 years thanks to its geographical position.

Malik Amin said, given the economic damage is estimated in the index organization Germanwatch 2020 3.8 million dollars, Pakistan was ranked number three in long-term assessment over a 20-year period (1999-2028).

“This means that our economy is at risk from climate disasters, and it is not only an environmental problem but also a problem that affects our economy, health, agriculture and ecosystems,” said he, adding that the government has taken a number of policy measures, management and operational levels in order to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change in the country.

The assistant to the Prime Minister said that the climate crisis affects all countries and Pakistan is no exception from the point of view of the consequences of the crisis and increased vulnerability to him.

“Global warming is destroying not only national economies that affect the lives and welfare of the people and country dearly today and even more tomorrow. Because of the soaring climate change carbon emissions in the world, people and communities have a considerable human impact in the result of climate change, including rapidly changing weather conditions, rising sea levels, heat, drought, expanding desertification, forest fires, cyclones, off-season rains and torrential floods,” he said.

Malik Amin said that carbon emission is at its highest levels in the history of mankind and on the rise, the average temperature of the Earth’s surface, according to forecasts, will rise in the 21st century if serious actions were taken.

He, however, stressed that there are available to mitigate the consequences and the solutions available and should be adopted and extended to enable countries to move to cleaner, more resilient economies.

“Turning to renewable energy, as well as a number of other measures that will reduce emissions and increase adaptation efforts is an important step forward as part of real climate action,” he said.

Prime Minister’s adviser said that Pakistan has also begun the transformation of China Pakistan economic corridor the China-Pakistan economic corridor green and put 2740MW imported coal projects signed by the previous government, and replace them with a zero carbon and indigenous hydel projects 3700MW potential.

“This paradigm shift demonstrates the commitment of this government a favorable climate for the growth and sustainable development, which is good not only for Pakistan, but also useful for the whole world,” he said.

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People are asked to change their lifestyle to the availability of vaccines | Instant News


LAHORE: Graduate Medical Institute and Principal of Amir Uddin High School of Medicine, Prof. Dr. Sardar Muhammad Al-freed Zafar said that steps taken to curb the spread of coronaviruses and locking have revolutionized the world, leading to significant reductions in air pollution and the spread of complex diseases among citizens. There is also a reduction in ozone depletion from air pollution and toxic gases.

In a press statement on Sunday, he urged residents to change their lifestyles to the availability of a coronavirus vaccine. “We must change and learn to live with this virus,” he added. He said that coronavirus is not only in Pakistan but the whole world is under its grasp. He said, “We can successfully defeat the virus.”

The headmaster of PGMI said that if the community did not follow the SOP, the consequences could be dire and the hard work of the doctors, nurses and paramedical staff fighting in the front lines could be in vain. He said that the only solution was to keep a social distance and the process of washing hands was often unavoidable. He stated that residents must also be aware of the environment around them and keep it clean and spray disinfectants to prevent disease.

He also urged young people to place more importance on planting trees so that the country can be made greener and the damage caused by climate change can be avoided worldwide.

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Switzerland – Plans to make climate change institutions delayed | Instant News


(MENAFN – Swissinfo) Planning to make climate change agencies postponed

May 15, 2020 – 16:03

A proposal to merge the two leading research institutes into one body has been submitted. This step met with internal resistance from within federal technology and research institutions (collectively known as the ETH domain).

Plans to combine the Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) were presented last year. It was intended to ‘develop Switzerland further as a leading research center for environment and sustainability’.

But the ETH Council, the domain’s governing body, said on Friday that it was delaying a formal request for parliament to approve the formation of a new unit. It is called ‘reservation’ which has raised ‘questions specifically about the cost-benefit ratio and added value by the proposed merger’. Some ETH Domain departments also feel abandoned from the proposed new research unit.

New working groups have been formed to overcome objections and to decide how to proceed. There is no exact date for the establishment of a new research body, only that it is a ‘medium-term’ project.

The federal ETH domain consists of two Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) and Lausanne (EPFL) – both of which are ranked highest in international surveys – as well as four research institutions: the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Research Landscaping (WSL), the Swiss Federal Laboratory for Material Science and Technology (EMPA), and the Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag).

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