Tag Archives: colony

Do you speak “Earth English”? Why future interstellar immigrants will try to chat | Instant News


Do you know what “crosstalk” is?

It is precisely because of the tone of the person’s last use that the statement made by someone sounds like a problem. Also known as High rise terminal (HRT) or rising inflection point.

People have been doing this now. This phenomenon started in Australia about 40 years ago and spread to the United States. It is now common in all ages throughout the English-speaking countries.

Now imagine the existence of interplanetary settlements on other planets. There are isolated human communities. Immigrants from the earth arrived in a colony that has lived in space for many years.

In a future era handed down from generation to generation, will humans be able to communicate with each other?

Old and new colonists may have difficulty understanding each other, and the people sent to the “home” of the earth and the information received from them may soon become meaningless.

They are in New article Published on Future law, Is a journal of the European Space Agency Advanced Concept Group.

The authors say that as communities become more and more isolated, the language is gradually dispersed. Therefore, not only will the language change rapidly between the colonists in the isolated interplanetary settlement, but the passengers on the spacecraft will also quickly change.

“If you have used 10 generations on this ship, new ideas will emerge, new social problems will emerge, people will create ways to talk about these ideas, and these will become the unique vocabulary of the ship,” Andrew McCann Andrew McKenzie said that the professor of linguistics at the University of Kansas co-authored “Language Development in Interstellar Travel” with Jeffrey Punske, an assistant professor of linguistics at Southern Illinois University.

The authors say that if the crew is physically and socially disconnected from Earth, then about 200 years will be enough time for major changes. If the community is small, it may only be a lifetime. They inferred from examples on Earth; from 1500 to 1800, Polynesians settled in the South Pacific, and in the 1800s, English-speaking people settled in remote colonies in New Zealand until Texas developed a unique “Dirk” The “Saas-German” dialect lasted for three generations until the First World War.

MacKenzie said: “People on earth may never know these new words unless there is a reason to tell them, and the farther they are, the less chance they have to talk to their families.” Generations will pass by, not on earth Anyone can talk to these interstellar travelers. “You don’t want to tell them too much, because they will only find out after a few years, and then you will receive their echo after a few years.”

For years of voyages, dialects may merge. New generations of dialects and even new languages ​​can consolidate the mission for generations.

The individual connection between the interstellar traveler and the colonists and the earth will soon disappear. “If we have “Earth English” and “Ship English”, and they have been different for many years, you must learn a little Earth English to send back information, or read the instruction manual and information that comes with the ship.” McKenzie ) In the English-centered research, just to emphasize some broad concepts.

Moreover, the language of returning to the earth will also change, so the language of communication between humans related to the earth and colonial humans will become an ancient language used only for this purpose. Does anyone want or need to learn how to communicate with people on earth? Or vice versa?

The author recommends keeping the older English form purely for ceremonial or religious purposes.

They also suggested that the crew of ships arriving in the colony may want to learn the local language before arriving to prevent discrimination. They wrote: “Every new ship essentially transfers language immigrants to foreign countries.” “Will children and grandchildren be discriminated against before they learn the local language?”

So, the next time you look up at the stars, remember that one day there may be a spaceship with humans desperately trying to learn to make all their voices sound like a problem.

I wish you a clear sky

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place of birth of modern Canada | Instant News


France was tempted by the New World for years, but it needed some effort to make French settlements remain. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, French settlers finally succeeded in conquering wild and rich lands and turning them into influential colonial outposts. New France, as the land was once called, consists of five colonies covering a large swath of North America, stretching from Hudson Bay in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south. The land is home to fur traders, state-sponsored brides, warriors – and natives who have been there for thousands of years.

The intertwined lives of people from New France 1690 are depicted in the upcoming National Geographic limited series Barkskins, which premiered on Remembrance Day. Based on Annie Proulx’s bestselling novel, this eight-part series explores a mysterious massacre that threatens to throw the region into war and reveals the tension and complexity of French occupation in North America.

What is New France like? You will catch a glimpse of the history and culture of the region by focusing on the most densely populated and economically powerful colonies. Although there were only between 1608 and 1763, the Canadian colony produced a different language, culture and history that still resonates in the modern country known as Canada.

The Origins of New France

In 1534, Jacques Cartier has begun the first of three expeditions to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. But Cartier’s brief attempt at a settlement was a failure, and after a conflict with the local Iroquois people and a failed attempt to exploit the natural resources there, he returned to France.

It was half a century before France tried again. In 1604, French settlers established the Acadia colony on land around the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Four years later, explorer Samuel de Champlain founded the city of Québec further inland. It became the largest city in the Canadian colony.

The French crown plan is to let the trading company run the New France and attract settlers there in return for the right to take advantage of the natural gifts of the colony, the most profitable of which is the large population of native animals.

Champlain envisions building a profitable fur trade in Canada. But at first the colony was giddy due to lack of settlers, difficulty accessing the wealth that Champlain was proud of, and conflict with Iroquois.

The early days of the colony

Life in Canada is very challenging. The French invaders fought with harsh winters and unclear land in the region. Canada relies heavily on agriculture and the fur trade, which brings invaders into conflict with people whose land they have claimed for France.

The Haudenosaunee, also known as the Iroquois, have lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years, developing complex societies and building trade routes throughout the region. By the time European settlers arrived in 1608, five countries of Iroquois, Seneca, Oneida, Mohawk, Cayuga, and Onondaga, had joined together to the Haudenosaunee League, or Iroquois ,. As European settlements increase, League countries and their rivals become more and more interdependent with settlers.

Indigenous peoples know how to trap and beaver skins and other animals, valued for being used in hats and other products. They exchanged their skins with items of European settlers, such as weapons, cloth, and metal. They also helped French settlers navigate the waters and forests. In the beginning, a traditional trapper collected, processed and transported almost all the hair produced by the colony.

The fur trade benefits France and their indigenous trading partners. But it also triggered decades of competition, violence and all-out war as the fur trade changed the traditional landscape, economy and way of life of indigenous groups.

Tension and violence

The Iroquois and other indigenous people traditionally share their hunting territory with tribal members and their allies, only hunt as much as necessary, and respect land and animals as part of their spiritual beliefs. But the invaders demanded more feathers than are usually hunted by indigenous groups. Responding to this request, indigenous peoples hunted more, traveled longer distances than usual, and turned to individualism.

When hunting depletes the number of beavers and deer in the Iroquois area, Iroquois seeks to seize control of more territory to trap and hunt. During the 1630s and 1640s, they also began to attack their original rivals – and anyone who was allied with them, which in some cases included the French colonies.

Samuel de Champlain, founder of Quebec, is considered the ‘Father of New France.’ But by claiming this territory and building settlements on it, the French invaders provoked tension and violence with those who already lived on the land.

Photo by the Kean Collection, Getty

Hunting territory is not the only thing at stake for Iroquois. They believed that family members lost at the hands of their rivals or because of the deadly disease brought by the invaders should be replaced by captives, and that counterattacking was a way to honor their deaths. This led to a series of what historians call the “mourning war”: guerrilla attacks driven by deep sorrow.

The tragic combination creates what historian Daniel Richter has was called in dangerous spiral: “Epidemics cause even more fierce grief wars with firearms; the need for weapons increases the demand for animal skins to be traded for them; fur search sparked war with other countries; and death in that conflict started another mourning war. “

The population of New France was greatly shaken by the Iroquois attack. The war parties would unexpectedly invade isolated settlements or agriculture, slaughtering residents and sometimes taking prisoners. Thousands of miles away, the French government decided its investment in New France did not produce results and did not take steps to protect the invaders. Trade suffered because invaders tried to defend themselves.

“A woman lives with constant fear that her husband, who left that morning to work, will be killed or captured and that he will never see her again,” write Pierre Boucher, who arranged the small settlement of Trois-Rivières. Boucher developed a successful defense strategy for Trois-Rivières, securing a settlement during the nine-day siege in 1653 and finally brokering peace with the attackers.

Elsewhere, Iroquois managed to fight most of their native rivals. And many of their attacks on France were successful; in the 1660s they controlled most of the countryside in New France.

King Louis XIV took control

After 55 years of supervision by the trading company, the New France was transferred to the royal government in 1663. Louis XIV tried to reverse the wealth of the New France by investing more in the most promising colony, Canada. The crown paid for the travel of its citizens to New France, which increased its population, and finally Canada was divided into three districts, Quebec, Trois-Rivières, and Montreal.

But the population is still submerged, partly because of the gender imbalance between the 3,000 men of the colony – including the army, carpenters, fur traders and traders – and a few women. In 1663 there was a woman for every six men in New France. To correct the imbalance, increase the colony population, and persuade French men to live in New France, the crown pays nearly 800 women to travel to New France as state-sponsored brides.

Louis XIV recruited a known French woman filles du roi, or daughter of the king, to sail to the colony to marry and bear children. In this description, the top administrator of the colony Jean Talon greeted filles du roi when they arrived in Quebec in 1667.

Photo courtesy of the Canadian Library and Archives

Recruited and equipped with Louis XIV’s own funds, this filles du roi, or the daughters of the king, were sent to New France with change between 1663 and 1673. Most were poor women aged between 16 and 40 who came from urban areas throughout France. In addition to their trip, about half were given dowry and trousseaus, which included goods like needles, gloves, and shoelaces that are hard to come by in rough colonies.

At home, filles du roi will face an uncertain fate with low or no dowry, poverty, and dependence on male family members to choose their partners. Only safely from a trip to New France, filles du roi found themselves stronger and opportunities for prosperity higher than in Europe. Armed with a chest of hope and a promising future, they boarded a ship to Canada.

When the women arrived, they were accommodated by nun who taught them household skills, tried to direct them to the rigors of colonial life, and watched their whirlwind courtship along with Jean Talon, the colony’s top administrator. Unlike at home, filles de roi has the freedom to choose their husbands. They interviewed potential couples in a speed dating style meeting when they go from city to city along the St. River. Lawrence; if they don’t like the selection, they can continue. However, most get married soon.

After marriage, filles du roi is encouraged to have as many children as possible; the crown promises financial bonuses for every woman who gives birth to more than 10 children. And because food is so abundant in the colony, filles du roi are more likely than their counterparts in the French continent to survive their pregnancy and produce healthy and surviving children.

Peace with Iroquois

Filles du roi was not the only person sent by Louis XIV to New France. In 1665, the French crown ordered a group of French soldiers to strengthen the New France and protect its investment there.

When about 1,200 troops arrived at the colony – around the same time as filles du roi – they were welcomed as saviors. Although they did not have the equipment and equipment inadequate to deal with their Iroquois rival guerrilla tactics, their arrival put France at a tactical advantage. The Iroquois League, weakened by decades of war, offers peace. In 1667, the New France and the Iroquois League signed peace agreement it will last 20 years.

But permanent peace will not come until the turn of the century. In 1683, war broke out again in response to the increasingly aggressive invaders’ efforts to secure a larger hunting ground, and France again sent troops to New France. Over the next 15 years, the second phase of what became known as the Beaver War pitted the invaders against indigenous groups whose lands they claimed were theirs.

Finally, in 1701, France and Iroquois signed an agreement known as the Great Peace. That would mark the end of the French and Iroquois conflicts for the rest of the colony’s life.

The fall of New France

By the beginning of the 18th century, New France had expanded its borders and accommodated around 20,000 residents in total. But French wealth in the area was destined to fall. Although the population and economy increased rapidly in the early 1700s, New France spent most of its money on military preparations that were inconsistent with colonial reality. And despite its peace with local indigenous peoples, France was unable to fend off war against its biggest colonial rival, Britain.

In 1756, the Seven Years’ War pitted a relatively small population of French colonies against a much larger number of colonies in British-controlled America. The New France ended with the defeat of France in the Seven Years War, and its ownership was handed over to Britain in the Paris Agreement in 1763. (Here’s how the size of the US doubled with the purchase of one of its previous holdings in France.)

Despite its relatively short age of 155 years, New France forms a legacy that can still be felt in modern Canada. Even under British rule, write historian Jacques Mathieu, residents of what used to be New France “rejected assimilation and confirmed their existence. Protected by their language, religion and institutions, concentrated in a limited geographical area, difficult to penetrate, they developed their own way of life, social habits, and attitudes. “

This way of life came at a tragic cost to Iroquois and other indigenous groups whose traditional ways were damaged by the fur trade that made New France survive. Illness and war are caused significant population decline, and although they maintained their independence after the Beaver War, Iroquois continued to face pressure from the invaders who wanted to dominate in the new world.

The native Canadian descendants of French later identified as Quebec and even fuel separatist movement in modern Canada. The majority of French Canadians are descendants of the original filles du roi, women who move from poverty to roles recognized as the founding mothers of new countries.

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Runaway beekeepers: Important Nicaraguan workers for Canadian food supply chains are on their way | Instant News


Ash Apiaries manage thousands of colonies, also known as nests.

Flyers

A chartered plane carrying an unusual combination of travelers is scheduled to depart from Nicaragua to Canada on Monday: temporary foreign workers are bound for commercial bee operations, and Canadians have been stranded in Central America amid a COVID-19 pandemic.

Flights out of the capital city of Managua have been suspended because international travel is slowing, a complicated effort to bring workers to Canada to help manage the spring nest making season – an important time when bees reproduce and develop into healthy colonies. Led by a queen who lays up to 2,000 eggs every day, honey bees are good for more than the name implies; They are very important for cross pollinating fruits, vegetables and canola.

To prevent labor shortages that can have an impact on the food supply chain and injure the beekeeping industry, the Canadian Honey Board takes action on its own. At a cost of around $ 200,000, the board chartered the plane to fly 80 skilled workers from Nicaragua to Canada, landed first in Calgary, and then continued east to Saskatoon, Brandon and Toronto.

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“I expect 10 people, and it is very important for them to arrive here,” said Bryan Ash, a partner at Ash Apiaries, a large family that runs beekeeping operations that cross-pollinate orchards in BC, and make honey in Manitoba. He is one of three dozen beekeepers who will pay the council for their seat in flight.

Nicaragua’s workforce is among 60,000 seasonal farms and other temporary workers who come to Canada each year – an important infusion of labor into the agricultural sector. The federal government last month allowed the entry of foreign workers, stipulating that they must be quarantined for 14 days. But travel has been delayed because visa offices in foreign countries have been closed and commercial flights have become scarce.

When the honey board began checking flights, executive director Rod Scarlett reached Global Affairs Canada. “We have never been involved in this, so I want to make sure we cover our base,” he said. “We also ask, ‘Do you need anyone out?'” The answer is yes. Around 40 Canadians are expected to board the same plane.

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“[The Canadian Honey Council] “has coordinated directly with the Canadian embassy in Managua regarding arrangements and offering seats to Canadians who want to return to Canada,” Global Affairs spokesman Krystyna Dodds said in an email.

Mr Ash flew nine workers to Canada in February, before the pandemic closed most economic activities. That’s about half of the workers who usually arrive at this time of the year. (He tried to fly with several other men in the last few weeks, but they were twice refused at the Managua airport because of rapidly expanding border controls.)

Ash Apiaries manage thousands of colonies, also known as nests. Each colony can have as many as 80,000 bees. Several thousand of Mr Ash’s colonies were already in the Okanagan Valley, where they had winter in warmer weather. Soon, beekeepers will need to transport insects in trailers – 700 colonies per load – to apple and cherry orchards that need cross pollination to produce fruit.

“Cherry farmers who work with us in SM. very nervous, “Mr. Ash said.” They want their cherries to be pollinated. “

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Keep an eye on the temperature overnight and during the day, Mr. Ash suspected he would also soon need to move 8,000 colonies from the indoor temperature control facility at Gilbert Plains, Man., Outside, where they would look for pollen and nectar that would feed the nest and form the basis for honey. The vaginal willow tree begins to grow in the province of Prairie. Time is of the essence.

Federal Agriculture Minister Marie-Claude Bibeau told The Globe and Mail that his understanding was that around 1,000 temporary foreign workers arrived to work in the agriculture sector last week, with an additional 3,000 to 4,000 expected to come this week.

“That will obviously be slower than usual, but still, we are continuing,” Bibeau said. “We anticipate shortages. [in temporary foreign workers]. It’s still hard to say how much. Will it be 70 percent coming? Is it 80 percent? Hard to say. “

Bibeau encouraged non-working Canadians to raise their hands to agricultural labor that was desperately needed, but Mr. Scarlett says managing a bee colony requires techniques that develop with experience. Workers must be able to identify the queen among tens of thousands of worker bees and hundreds of males, known as drones; if the queen does not lay eggs to standard, she will be killed and replaced.

Workers must have sharp eyes to detect mite attacks that can destroy the hive, and they must feed enough bees of nectar and pollen bread to prevent starvation. Wearing a jacket and veil but often working with their bare hands, workers must also be prepared to be stung dozens of times a day (experienced beekeepers build immunity to poisons).

According to the honey council, there are around 10,000 honey beekeepers who operate a total of 725,000 honey bee colonies from coast to coast. While some hives are managed by fans, most are run by commercial beekeepers. “The biggest concern that commercial operations have is labor,” said Mr. Scarlett.

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Workers and Canadians on chartered planes arriving Monday will be taken in temperature before boarding and must wear masks during the trip to protect against the possible spread of the virus.

“We’re glad we can get two things done at once,” said Mr. Scarlett. “The world is really chaotic now. It’s great being able to give Canadians a chance to go home. “

With a report from Tavia Grant

Now it is recommended that you wear face masks in crowded public settings such as grocery stores and pharmacies, pay attention to how to make three masks recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Written instructions are available at tgam.ca/masks

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Karachi accounted for 87 of the 104 COVID-19 new cases reported from Sindh | Instant News


Karachi [Pakistan]April 11 (ANI): Pakistan’s Sindh Province reported 104 new cases of COVID-19 on Saturday, of which 87 were reported from the provincial capital of Karachi.

13 other cases have been reported from Hyderabad, three from Larkana and one from Sanghar. Three people died in Karachi from the virus in the past 24 hours.

Sindh Chief Minister Murad Ali Shah was quoted as saying that the increase in the number of cases in the province was greater than the world average and therefore a cause for concern.

Meanwhile, 11 Unity Councils in the East Karachi District were sealed to accommodate the spread of the disease, according to a notice from the Office of the Deputy Commissioner, Dawn reported.

These councils include Manzoor Colony, Gillani Railway, Dalmia, Jamali Colony, Gulshan II, Goth Scholar, Gulzar-e-Hijri, Safoora, Faisal Cantt, Jacob Line, and the Jamshed Quarter.

Karachi has introduced sanitary walk-through gates to disinfect people.

But experts in Pakistan call them “poisonous traps” which provide “a false sense of security”.

Dr Shireen Khan, head of the tuberculosis and chest disease department at Fatimah Jinnah Hospital in Quetta, said the gate was shallow.

“People need to remember that the virus in your body does not die once you walk through these gates [walk-through gates] “It does not provide complete security against the virus and there is no recommendation from WHO in this regard,” said Dr. Khan, who treats COVID-19 patients in Balochistan. (ANI)

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