(MENAFN – Swissinfo) Lakes, a source of 20% of global natural methane emissions, could also be a source of global energy, if handled properly, said the Swiss researcher.
This content is published April 4, 2021 – 18:23 April 4, 2021 – 18:23 Keystone-SDA / dos
In a paper published this week, researchers from Basel and Zurich suggest a way to more efficiently extract the methane that naturally develops when biomass rots in lakes.
Methane, which is 25 times more harmful to the climate than carbon dioxide, is mostly produced by the petroleum industry and agriculture. However, one fifth of all methane emissions are generated naturally in lakes. This “in theory would be sufficient to meet all the world’s energy needs,” said University of Basel scientist Maciej Bartosiewicz.
Bartosiewicz, along with Przemyslaw Rzepka and Moritz Lehmann, claim to have developed a concept – using a filter-like membrane made of a porous mineral called zeolite – to extract this gas more efficiently.
Until recently, the only place in the world where methane was extracted from lakes and used to generate electricity was Lake Kivu, in Central Africa. However, these bodies of water enjoy enormous amounts of methane, 100 times more than in ordinary lakes. Such operations have not been profitable elsewhere, said the University of Basel in its press release.
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Last month, Denmark put its name on a proposal labeled the ‘shot of the moon’ to set up a $ 5 billion fund to catalyze the research and development (R&D) it needs to help shipments meet the UN’s decarbonization goals. Thinking blue sky or cake in the sky? Bunker place spoke with the Danish Head of Maritime Security, Environment and Maritime Research, Maria Skipper Schwenn, to find out more.
Why did Danish Shipping decide to support a $ 5 billion R&D fund proposal?
Maria Skipper Schwenn: We have been heavily involved in the preparation of proposals through our membership in the International Chamber of Shipping. What’s changed [last month] It is a fact that Denmark, as a country and as a member state of the International Maritime Organization, supports the proposal.
It’s quite unique that you have an industry at the international level that proposes this. This is the first time you have really seen proposals from the joint industry on financing the transition facing the industry. At IMO, it is the Member States that ultimately adopt the regulations. Therefore, we need the support of Member States so that the IMRB proposal can be turned into a regulation.
How can Denmark support the proposal?
MSS: In the fall of 2019, the Danish government established 13 climate partnerships between government and industry. Its job is to bring initiatives to the table that industry itself can undertake under the current framework to contribute to Denmark’s national emission reduction target of 70% by 2030.As an industry, we must make initiatives and recommendations for the government to take over and do more work. continue. One of the initiatives we brought to the table was a proposal by the International Maritime Research and Development Agency (IMRB) – that the industry itself takes responsibility and raises revenue for research and development. But we also clearly state in our report that we need to have government support for this because otherwise it wouldn’t be the rule at IMO. So, we are very happy that Denmark has decided to take a recommendation from the industry and act on it.
How did you get to the $ 5 billion mark?
MSS: That’s a very good question. We need someone to talk about it. $ 5 billion is just a proposal to be negotiated. Nothing says that’s where we’ll end up, but in order to be able to describe the size of the animal we’re talking about, we have to add an image. Is that going to be $ 2 per tonne [of fuel], I don’t know, it’s for negotiation. If you ask, it’s definitely not fixed, it’s something to negotiate with.
What are some considerations in deciding to set a $ 2 per tonne amount of fuel?
MSS: It’s important to understand that this is not an MBM [market-based measure]. This is not a mechanism that will push [emissions] subtraction. Now we’re saying $ 2. That won’t drive any deductions. There is absolutely no incentive to reduce your emissions at the cost of just $ 2 per tonne of fuel – and that’s not the point of this. The goal is to generate revenue which can then be channeled into research and development, fuel type testing, energy infrastructure – everything we need to be involved in the transition.
What would you say to those countries, such as the Marshall Islands and the Solomon Islands, that think the proposals are not enough?
MSS: The Marshall Islands and Solomon Islands have submitted proposals for a $ 100 fee, but it is an entirely different matter. It was a massive MBM. For us at Danish Shipping, we believe it is too early to start talking about numbers and numbers before we really agree on what the goal is because otherwise you will end up in a discussion about $ 100, $ 150, $ 250 and you won’t. go anywhere. You will then have all developing countries ask for support and then raise a joint but different responsibility card [the principle that recognises all states are responsible for addressing climate change but do not share equal responsibility]. From our point of view, the IMRB proposal is not an MBM, it is something completely different, and we support the beginning to discuss MBM in its entirety. Again, not $ 100 or $ 150, but the principles of the MBM, and how we designed that MBM, so it really drives reduction, and it rewards and incentivizes first movers. That is what we want to focus more on at the moment and which we are ready to discuss because, yes, one day there will be MBM.
The strength of the IMRB proposal is that it can be carried out as an amendment to MARPOL, so that it is an amendment to existing regulations, which means that it can actually take place and be ready in 2023. Meanwhile, the MBM as a whole will require a new regulatory framework and knowing IMO which can take up to eight year, [then] IMRB is the first step towards making this happen.
Shipping companies have come under increasing financial pressure in recent years to comply with stricter emission regulations. Do you think that the potential 2% tax on their fuel bill makes sense, especially when the market is already responding to the challenge of decarbonization?
MSS: I can of course only speak for my members and there I clearly feel the urgency as they are being met by requests from customers starting with transparency regarding their emissions. But then there are the requirements for low-carbon shipping, and with those terms and demands, companies can start talking about who will pay the bills. So, that’s the customer side. And then you have the whole investor side where you also have increasing requirements for transparency and low-carbon green vessels if you want to get invested. So, I think we are seeing the circle starting to develop and thus also sharing responsibility for the bill.
Our members are eager to run this because they don’t want to be the last industry someone else will decide for them, just because shipping will stand there by itself when the rest of the world is gone. It’s no secret, there are also parts of the industry that are dragging their feet, but in that sense, I have an easy job because I have a very homogeneous membership where they agree we have to be proactive, and we should set the agenda as an industry instead of asking other people do it for us.
Do you expect resistance to this proposal?
MSS: Since this is a joint industry proposal, you even have the most conservative national associations backing the IMRB proposal. We’ve been working on this proposal for some time and there is definitely some movement in the industry and for sure, as we said in Denmark, some hairy camels to swallow! It’s important to highlight that there will be no doubt or lack of support from the industry. The industry is 100% behind the IMRB proposal and will furthermore be ready to start discussions on massive MBM.
When is the time for submitting a proposal?
MSS: Now will be discussed at the MEPC [Marine Environment Protection Committee] in June and will hopefully be greeted with a view to further discussion in the fall. That’s how it works at IMO – they open a discussion and then point out things to refer to at the next committee meeting. Then hopefully it will be discussed further at the next MEPC in November and then approved at the MEPC in 2022.
Does the proposal require unanimous approval from all member states?
MSS: In principle, that’s how IMO works, but you never see voting taking place on IMO. If that happens, it will be one-country-one-vote, assuming they are parties to the MARPOL Convention. Usually what happens is that you have all the statements and then the Chairman concludes and he can quickly figure out how many [Member States] support and do not support the proposal. I have experienced several countries threatening to demand a vote. When [0.50%] the sulfur regulations go into effect, we suddenly see some really attractive countries suddenly ratify the MARPOL Convention so they have a say, and I’m pretty sure there has been some lobbying going on! But in principle, it will be a consensus, but not unanimous.
Do you expect the proposal to be approved and then adopted at the end of the year?
I really think that now with co-sponsorship – because this is a pretty influential state – that is supporting it to keep this going. But I am sure there will be developing countries who will question this. [For instance], a small island nation that depends on the transport of its goods by sea wants to know if goods are becoming more expensive.
There are still some things to discuss, but I don’t understand why it won’t be adopted next year. Who can refuse to raise money for this? It’s counter-intuitive to say you’re against this. For those who say that this is too unambitious? This is not an MBM, let’s work on an MBM that will drive emission reductions and have an economic impact – let’s work on it in parallel with the IMRB. That’s why I’m sure it will be adopted and it will become law.
Pakistan has experienced unprecedented flooding, glacial lake bursts, and several other climate-related disasters in the last decade. The country ranks 135th in terms of global emissions but is among the countries most vulnerable to climate change.
This view was expressed by panelists at a session, at the 12th Karachi Literary Festival, entitled, ‘The Air We Breathe: Pakistan’s Vulnerability to Climate Change’.
Panelist, award-winning journalist Rina Saeed Khan, and a geographer focused on water and climate politics, Tabitha Spence, noted that although the current government tends to mitigate the effects of climate change, the main reason why jobs are lagging in the sector is that Ministry officials Climate change is often transferred from project to project. As the session began, Khan, a frequent participant of the United Nations Conference on Climate Change – Conference of the Parties (COP), outlined Pakistan’s efforts to counter the global impacts of climate change.
Pakistan sends a delegation led by the climate change minister annually as part of the country’s foreign policy, he said. However, delegation members are often transferred to work on other projects, Khan said. He believed that the ministry should have more trained and focused individuals and stronger delegates to represent Pakistan in international forums.
It is also part of the Group of 77 (G77) developing countries at the United Nations but only follows other countries when it comes to climate change negotiations, Khan said. “[The country] not a big influencer [when it comes to] climate change but is definitely affected by it. “
He observed that although the country is ranked 135th in terms of its global emissions, its vulnerability to the effects of environmental degradation is much higher.
Prone to climate disasters
The country has experienced frequent glacial lake overflows, floods and other climate-related disasters since 2010, he said. This climate catastrophe left after devastation occurred in villages in mountainous areas, and those living around the Indus Delta, which were affected by rising sea levels.
Bringing members of the community most exposed to the impacts of climate change in Pakistan to the COP will help bring forward the country’s climate problems, he said. Likewise, Spence points out that locust storms used to destroy agricultural land in Sindh and Punjab. In addition, floods, heat waves and melting glaciers are the most direct signs of the country’s climate crisis, he said.
Geographers predict that this effect will only get worse over time and recommend that timely goals be set to limit the harm. This goal should enable our communities to safeguard their resources and commodities, he stressed.
During the discussion, Khan observed that climate change is being widely covered in the media. Younger journalists have seen what is happening to farmers and are aware of the scale of the destruction globally and its effects in Pakistan, he said.
While appreciating the Pakistani government’s Tehreek-e-Insaf tendency to tackle climate change, he called the 10 billion tree project and the prime minister’s announcement to produce 60 percent of the country’s energy from renewable sources by 2030 as ambitious. Meanwhile, Spence drew attention to the fact that global emissions are continuing to increase and exceed pre-pandemic levels despite being on lockdown around the world. “This proves that our policies have never changed,” he said.
Khan and Spence were joined by the acting United States Consul General in Karachi, Jack Hillmeyer, while Amy Christianson, public affairs officer at the US consulate in Karachi moderated the session.
Published in The Express Tribune, March 29th, 2021.
On Friday, March 26, OnePlus 9 and OnePlus 9 Pro were certified by the Verizon network. Prior to this, T-Mobile accidentally leaked the possible discounted price of this model. The company also provided information about cell phones.
Which networks will have the 5g function of mobile phones
(Photo: Oneplus Photography by Oneplus) Will OnePlus 9 Verizon 5g be released at launch? T-Mobile gives phone discounts
according to edge, Verizon officially announced that OnePlus 9 and OnePlus 9 Pro have now passed its network certification. This means that on its release date, the phone will be available on a platform that supports 5G.
At the same time, according to the leaked report, the only network currently capable of using 5G on mobile phones will be T-Mobile.
From the beginning, the 5G story of OnePlus 9 series phones was confusing. Only the Pro model equipped with mmWave has a 5G connection, and according to T-Mobile’s announcement, only the T-Mobile network will provide it.
At the time of launch, AT&T will continue to charge its customers for 5G access, even if they are currently unable to use it.
On the current OnePlus compatibility chart, AT&T bands are not listed in compatible bands, so this indicates that the phone is not compatible with them.
Although there will be some confusion at the beginning, the report shows that the phone can now be used in two of the three major US carriers.
It is not clear when these phones will be listed in the Verizon store, but if you rent an unlocked OnePlus 9, you can use them with your existing Verizon account or a new Verizon account.
(Photo: Oneplus Photography by Oneplus) Will OnePlus 9 Verizon 5g be released at launch? T-Mobile gives phone discounts
According to reports Tmo News, T-mobile has given specific details about the details of each mobile device.
Within a limited time, T-Mobile customers have the opportunity to get discounts on two models within a limited time. OnePlus 9 can enjoy a 50% discount, and if consumers choose to carry two lines or upgrade, the price of OnePlus 9 Pro 5G will be as high as $365.
OnePlus 9 5G is equipped with a 6.55-inch FHD + 120 Hz display and three rear cameras, including a 50mm ultra-wide camera.
OnePlus 9 Pro 5G is equipped with a 4.500mAh battery and 65W wired charging, while OnePlus 9 is equipped with a larger 6.7-inch QHD + LTPO 120Hz display and is powered by a Snapdragon 888 processor.
The device has a Hasselblad camera system with a 48-megapixel main sensor, a 50-pixel ultra-wide sensor and an 8-pixel wide-angle lens. Both wireless and wired charging options are available.
Both devices are now available for reservation. Starting from April 2 next week, it will be available in T-Mobile stores across the United States.
Australia, currently battling the worst floods in more than half a century, has failed to adapt quickly enough to the growing threat it faces from the effects of climate change, with its population now suffering the effects of “deliberate ignorance”, cautioned analysts.
Torrential rains have hit parts of the country this week, sweeping away homes, roads and livestock, and cutting across towns in the east. Dangerous flash floods have killed two people and more than 40,000 have been forced to flee their homes.
“They call Australia the ‘disaster alley’ because we have it all,” said Karl Mallon, Sydney-based CEO of Climate Assessment, which advises homeowners and buyers about climate risks and extreme weather.
As global warming accelerates, it is bringing more devastating storms, floods and heat waves to Australia, more severe droughts and an increased risk of bushfires.
“It’s a shame for us that we haven’t tackled this thing … We have every incentive and money to do it, it’s just that we don’t see it,” said Mallon.
Despite having known about climate change since the 1980s, Australia has continued to build houses on floodplains, he said.
The problem is often rooted in “willful ignorance,” he said, citing the government’s reliance on land taxes, builders and developers putting profits before safety from climate threats, and homeowners trying to minimize insurance payments.
Property buyers were given little information about flood risk, either by local governments or by banks and insurance companies, Mallon said.
“Sometimes the first time they find out is when they get hit – and they say ‘I didn’t know I was in a flood zone’,” he added.
Richie Merzian, director of the climate and energy program at think-tank The Australia Institute, said approaches to adapting to the impacts of climate change have so far fluctuated between federal, state and council levels, limiting resilience.
“The federal government appears to be allergic to any mention of climate change hindering a smart policy response,” he said.
Last year’s bushfires – what Prime Minister Scott Morrison called Australia’s “black summer” – killed more than 30 people, destroyed wildlife and razed more than 24 million hectares (59 million acres).
As the crisis hit, Morrison’s representatives reportedly partially blamed the “self-burning pile of shit.”
Meanwhile, the health of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, the world’s most extensive and spectacular coral reef ecosystem, is in critical condition and worsening as climate change heats the waters in which it resides, conservation groups say.
“The first thing is to recognize that the climate impacts are going to get worse and ‘one in 100 years’ events will become more common, and we need to plan for that reality,” said Cam Walker, campaign coordinator at Friends of Bumi Australia.
To deal with risks, a region-based adaptation approach must be devised that allows for a combined response between different levels of government and society, he said.
Mallon said the government, mortgage lenders and insurance companies need to offer incentives to homeowners to better upgrade and protect their properties, ensuring that roofs are stronger against storms and flood barriers are built around high-risk buildings.
At the city level, improved drainage, better sea walls and modern fire fighting equipment would help, he added.
To reduce damage from bushfires, he advises risky property owners to clean flammable gutters, install sprinklers and shutters that prevent embers and use fire-resistant paint.
Australia has sophisticated weather monitoring systems and has been able to issue flood alerts and evacuate those in danger, potentially saving thousands of lives, said Merzian of The Australia Institute.
But despite the country’s vulnerability to climate impacts, the government has been slow to carry out a national climate assessment or prepare a National Adaptation Plan, he said.
In January, Australia’s environment minister committed to coming up with a new climate resilience and adaptation strategy this year, which will be published before the UN climate talks COP26 in November.
As part of the initiative, Canberra said it would invest an initial 12.9 million Australian dollars ($ 9.8 million) to prepare for a disaster.
Protecting and restoring wetlands, mangroves and forests will help protect communities from floods and storms, while more trees in the city will also reduce the effects of heat, the greening group said.
Changing crop and cultivation practices, and introducing livestock types that can tolerate drier conditions, are other options for fighting drought, said Will Steffen, a climate scientist at the Australian National University.
But conservative governments are reluctant to change established practices in the agriculture and construction sectors, he said, adding that climate change has become a “partisan political issue.”
Environmentalists say Australia is its own worst enemy due to its continued dependence on coal-fired power, which makes it one of the world’s largest per capita carbon emitters.
Green groups have long lobbied the government to dump fossil fuels and set goals of becoming carbon neutral by 2050 – so far with little success.
“The government’s failure to reduce emissions significantly puts Australia and the Pacific region at risk of more fires, floods and typhoons,” said Martin Zavan, a campaigner at Greenpeace Australia Pacific.
“In terms of adaptation, you can’t just put tape on the bullet holes and hope it gets better,” he added.
Friends of the Earth’s Walker notes that Australia has produced 240 reports of natural disasters since 1920, but its citizens are still suffering the consequences.
“Adaptation without mitigation (emissions) means giving up on the issue of climate change,” he said.
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