As the first people get the COVID-19 vaccine, many wonder if you need a vaccine to fly. For example, airlines did not initially need a face mask to fly in the early weeks of the pandemic. Will airlines be faster to impose a vaccine for flying in 2021? Traveling RN Taylor Reed (right) receives a Covid-19 vaccination from Martin Luther King Jr. … [+] (MLK) Community Hospital on January 6, 2021 in the Willowbrook neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. – Deep in a southern Los Angeles hospital, a row of elderly Hispanic men in induced comas lay hooked up to ventilators, as nurses dressed in space suit-like respirators checked their sound monitors in the eerie silence . The intensive care unit in one of the city’s poorest neighborhoods is well used to death, but with Los Angeles now in the midst of the Covid pandemic in the United States, doctors say they don’t have never seen anything of this magnitude. (Photo by Patrick T. FALLON / AFP) (Photo by PATRICK T. FALLON / AFP via Getty Images) AFP via Getty Images Will you need a coronavirus vaccine to fly? With the COVID-19 vaccine not yet widely available, airlines do not require proof of vaccination to fly. However, some airlines and countries indicate that vaccination is necessary for the future. Will it only be necessary for international travel, domestic travel, or both? Time will tell, but current statements indicate that the vaccine will have to travel abroad first. As the first recipients started receiving the doses at the end of 2020, it may take several months before we see the need for a vaccine as a requirement to fly commercial. The American public might also have a clearer idea once the Biden-Harris administration takes control of the White House on January 20, 2021. As President Trump launched Operation Warp Speed to deliver the vaccine in record time , the new administration will oversee most of the country’s deployment. . Travel vaccines required Although the COVID-19 vaccine is not yet required to fly, some high-risk countries require specific immunizations to enter the country. For example, it is common for many countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa to require the vaccine against yellow fever. International students and those traveling for a specific reason may also need routine vaccines. Tetanus, typhoid, and hepatitis A may also be necessary vaccines for some destinations. Once the COVID vaccine becomes widely available, countries may require proof of vaccination to enter it. CDC Vaccine Deployment Schedule As vaccine supply is limited, CDC is currently proposing a phased deployment schedule. The first groups of people to receive the vaccine are: First responders Health care workers Residents of long-term care facilities People 75 years of age and over The second phase of deployment prioritizes vaccine for high-risk adults, Kindergarten to Grade 12 teachers and critical hazard workers and critical industries. Finally, adults and children at low risk can receive the vaccine. Each state and country in the United States has its own deployment schedule. However, many people can expect to receive the vaccine by the end of 2021. Airlines may demand a COVID vaccine So far, Qantas is the first airline to firmly claim that proof of vaccination is required for international flights. Qantas CEO Alan Joyce called the vaccine a “necessity” once it becomes widely available in a CNN interview in November 2020. Statements from other airlines, including Korean Air and Delta Air Lines , indicate that a vaccine will ultimately be a prerequisite. It remains to be seen whether governments will require a vaccine to enter the country or whether individual airlines will first adopt new policies. Passengers may be more willing to fly once a generalized vaccine is available as a way to boost “herd immunity”. But from a public opinion perspective, airlines can wait to apply a travel vaccine for domestic and international travel once the destination government makes vaccination mandatory. Immunity passport Governments and international organizations such as the World Health Organization are already developing solutions to reopen travel abroad. The main solution is an immunity passport. Israel Green Passport Israel is the first country to announce an immunity passport. Citizens can receive a “green passport” after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. This special passport may lift the quarantine restrictions upon direct contact with an infected person. Pass holders can also access cultural events and restaurants. The Israeli vaccine requires two injections to get the full dosage. Travelers qualify for the pass after getting the second shot. IATA Travel Pass The International Air Travel Association (IATA) is developing the IATA Travel Pass. This pass allows travelers to upload their vaccination history and other travel essentials to the pass. Airlines and countries can quickly see if the traveler has the necessary vaccines. Travelers can also use the IATA Health Pass to find nearby vaccine providers and destination testing requirements. CLEAR Health Pass Another immunity passport in preparation is the CLEAR Health Pass. Frequent travelers can already use CLEAR to avoid long pre-airport security lines. Or they can also use it to enter public places such as qualifying stadiums and museums. The Health Pass can integrate the current expedited security benefits with a medical examination. How to Fly Until a Vaccine Arrives Until the vaccine is widely available (and needed to fly), airlines are developing ways to protect the health of passengers. There are several options airlines and governments are implementing to boost business and leisure travel while providing peace of mind. Pre-travel testing Now that coronavirus diagnostic testing is more common, airlines are starting to require pre-travel testing on more routes. For domestic travel within the United States, flying to Hawaii was the first test case. In fall 2020, Hawaii launched its pre-travel testing program to allow leisure travelers to waive the 14-day quarantine. Airlines have partnered with test labs to offer self-contained at-home kits and rapid tests at the airport. Passengers pay the test fee, but a negative result means no quarantine period. Depending on the destination, passengers may also need to install a contact tracing app or stay in a “resort bubble”. These requirements are more likely when visiting foreign countries. Travel corridors for international flights Prior to the pandemic, international travel was a primary source of income for many commercial airlines. As global hotspots continually change, airlines are launching “travel lanes”. These corridors are between major international airports where a destination may have a mandatory quarantine. Delta Air Lines is testing a travel corridor between Atlanta and Rome. Eligible flyers must meet these conditions to travel: Traveling for an essential reason such as work, family or school Have a negative COVID PCR test from 72 hours before departure (or take a rapid test at the airport) Observe social distancing and contact tracing guidelines at destination These flights allow the mandatory quarantine to be lifted at destination. Americans can forgo the period of self-isolation which can be up to 14 days in Europe. Without these travel lanes, international flights remain difficult, even for essential travel. These travel corridors can extend to non-essential time travel. However, non-essential international travel may not return to a certain level of normality before the vaccine arrives. Travel for Essential Reasons The Christmas and New Years holidays saw the highest number of daily TSA checks since airlines began cutting routes at the start of the pandemic. Traveler confidence appears to be improving thanks to more widespread testing and more robust contact tracing. While passengers most often traveled for leisure and to see their families, flying only when necessary may be a good practice. Flying for essential reasons means passengers are less likely to need to self-quarantine upon arrival. States located primarily in the northeast and west of the United States have mandatory quarantines for tourists and returning residents. Summary Air passengers do not yet need a coronavirus vaccine to travel on the plane. But governments will likely need this vaccine for travelers soon. Until then, airlines and governments increasingly require pre-travel diagnostic testing to minimize the spread. Related Articles:.
Fruit producers in South Australia’s Riverland region are struggling to meet strict product quarantine regulations, with a second outbreak of Queensland fruit flies announced in the region in eight days.
The main point:
- A second fruit fly outbreak has been declared in South Australia’s Riverland region, this time in Monash
- Stone and grapefruit growers face uncertain harvests
- Primary Industry and SA Region work with farmers on treatment options
South Australian Regional and Primary Industry (PIRSA) confirmed yesterday evening fruit fly larvae had been found in the fruit of a backyard apricot tree in Monash.
An outbreak area of 1.5 km has been established around Monash and Glossop, while an exclusion zone of 15 km has also been established where various restrictions on the movement of fruit are in effect until at least 22 March.
It came after Another outbreak was announced near Renmark West on 23 December, although PIRSA treats each incident as separate.
The two outbreaks mean there are 33 locations across the Riverland that now face restrictions on the movement of fruit, with product having to be treated before leaving the property.
South Australia is the only mainland state considered fruit fly free, although two new Riverland outbreaks and eight separate Mediterranean fruit fly outbreaks are ongoing in metropolitan Adelaide.
Stone fruit, grape harvest is threatened
South Australia’s horticultural industry is valued at $ 1.3 billion and Riverland is the state’s largest fruit producing region.
In addition, Riverland produces 30.6 percent of Australia’s annual wine production and more than 950 growers operate in the region, with vintage starting at the start of the new year.
John Koutouzis operates a vineyard in Berri that has been hit by the outbreak and said authorities needed to do more to support the fruit industry.
“This is a time where you have to get the fruit out of the tree, but right now we are pretty much being asked to stop if you are sending fruit in South Australia,” he said.
“People are afraid they will lose the fruit, it will fall to the ground, they will not get a chance to pick it and they will not get a chance to sell it to the local market in Adelaide.
Stop the deployment of top priority
PIRSA Biosecurity Executive Director Nathan Rhodes said the department will continue to work with industry during the outbreak to allow for the movement of as much fruit as possible, but added making sure fruit flies don’t spread to other parts of the state was PIRSA’s first priority.
The treatment options available to producers include cold treatment and fumigation, both of which have to be paid for by the farmer.
“We are working very closely with the farmers to find out the existing demand for various treatments in Riverland and ensure there is capacity available to handle, for example, stone fruit that is currently being picked now and needs to be moved quickly,” he said.
“We are not going to provide treatment in that context, but we will definitely make sure there is capacity there if a commercial fumigation provider wants to be accredited by PIRSA to provide such care.”
Positive signs of the initial outbreak
PIRSA is within a week of its efforts to control the Renmark West outbreak and has not found more fruit flies near its first infected property.
Rhodes says finding fruit flies in backyard fruit trees – which triggers both outbreaks – is not unusual, as they are usually not as well maintained as commercial orchards.
“We have no reason to believe that the two (outbreaks) are linked. At the moment they are significantly separated in terms of the natural range of the Queensland fruit fly,” said Rhodes.
Australian cattle breeders, especially those from the northern part of the continent, have to face a serious threat, namely the buffalo flies. Now that the famous insect is moving south, governments are relying on bacteria to stop this southward expansion.
Led by Dr. Peter James, a senior researcher at the Center for Animal Science and Postgraduate Coordinator with the Queensland Alliance for Agricultural and Food Innovation (QAAFI), a joint effort involving academia, industry and the Queensland government will rely on bacteria Wolbachia to stop the fly breeding cycle.
(Photo: CSIRO via Wikimedia Commons) CSIRO develops buffalo fly traps. The buffalo fly, Haematobia irritant exigua, is a blood-sucking fly that remains on cows during its adult life, with a brief absence by the female to lay eggs in new cow dung. The numbers of buffalo flies exceed 200 per head for most of the summer in northern Australia and cause heavy production losses.
The buffalo fly problem is a costly concern for the health of Australian cattle, and subsequent meat production in the area. Article from QAAFI puts this problem at about $ 100 million per year, going to maintenance and production losses. The use of insecticides also remains a potential contested solution, facing local resistance coupled with the need to protect the “clean green” reputation known as Australian beef.
The researchers also noted that the buffalo fly has continued to move south over the past 100 years, moving through Queensland to northern New South Wales. In addition, the data model suggests that this climate change-driven expansion will reach South Australia and southwestern Western Australia by 2030.
Fighting the Buffalo Fly
The buffalo fly (Haematobia exigua) is an invasive species introduced to Australia’s Northern Territory in the late 1830s, coming from Asia. It uses two separate mouth parts, splits the skin of the mammal and sucks blood, with cows being the most common victims. This causes large and painful wounds, with the affected animal experiencing severe distress, affecting their diet and affecting the growth and health of the affected animal. The only rest Australian mammals get is when winter arrives, weakening the buffalo flies and forcing them to go into local pockets to survive the winter.
Wolbachia, a solution proposed in the study published in Parasites & Vectors, is a type of intracellular bacteria that mainly attacks insects. It has been used successfully in mitigation dengue fever, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. However, it requires an injection of the bacteria into the fly because Wolbachia is not transmitted sideways between flies but from mother to offspring. This was a challenge for the team because, as Dr. James, the buffalo fly eggs are very hard.
“When we started micro-injecting eggs, like mosquitoes do, we blunted the needle and broke the eggs like you wouldn’t believe it. The needles even burst,” explains Dr. James.
Introducing Wolbachia Through Adults and Pupa
“So from there we looked at adult flies or pupae that inject micro, the idea is that bacteria will still spread through insects and enter the female germ tissue,” added Dr. James. The project leader explained that the main thing was to introduce bacteria into the fly population. Researchers are looking for ways to use male flies as an alternative solution, as Wolbachia are microbes transmitted from mothers passing through eggs.
Researchers are now looking at three possible solutions. If infected males mate with healthy females, they may not have offspring. Furthermore, if a healthy male mates with an infected female and produces infected offspring, that will spread the bacteria to a large part of the population. The final option is to breed and release sterile male buffalo flies, using them to influence weakened flocks during winter.
Baggage guards for Air New Zealand have been charged with helping drug smugglers smuggle 20kg of methamphetamine through border security checks. Photo / Brett Phibbs
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