Tag Archives: Genes

Corona virus pandemic: Germany warns against traveling to ski areas in Austria, Switzerland, Italy – travel | Instant News


Germany has issued travel warnings for popular ski areas in Austria, Italy and Switzerland, struggling to contain the spread of the virus corona virus as the rate of new infections rose above 10,000 a day for the first time. While the infection rates in Germany are lower than in much of Europe, they are steadily increasing, with a daily increase of 11,287 cases bringing the total to 392,049. The German death toll stood at 9,905. “The situation has become very serious overall,” Lothar Wieler, head of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) for infectious diseases, said.

“We still have a chance to slow the spread of the pandemic,” he said. But he said people should stick to the rules and that Germany must prepare for an uncontrolled spread of the virus. On Wednesday, German Health Minister Jens Spahn became the latest leading politician to test positive for the virus. His spokesman said he had cold symptoms but had no fever. Government sources said he was fit for work. Berlin issued new travel warnings for Switzerland, Ireland, Poland, much of Austria and parts of Italy including the popular South Tyrol ski area.

The UK, with the exception of the Channel Islands, Isle of Man and overseas territories, is also seen as a high risk region. Under the warning, which takes effect from Saturday, travelers returning to Germany must be quarantined for 10 days. Quarantine can be lifted early, if tests carried out after five days turn out to be negative. The surge in Germany also prompted the Danish government to warn its citizens against traveling to and from Germany, except for the border state of Schleswig Holstein.

Germany’s move could have a significant impact on ski seasons in the Alpine countries. Especially Austria, which reported a record 2,435 new daily infections on Thursday, is a popular destination for Germans. Swiss Tourism spokesman Markus Berger said the news from Germany was definitely not good. The industry hopes that the situation will improve in the next month or two. “We assume that winter can continue,” he said. However, there is positive news for Spain’s Canary Islands as the RKI removed them from its risk list, raising hopes for German tourists over Christmas and New Year.

(This story has been published from a wire agency feed with no modifications to the text. Only the title has been changed.)

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Faces meet fashion in a selection of New Yorkers’ masks in the midst of the coronavirus pandemic – fashions and trends | Instant News


New Yorkers are increasingly embracing the use of masks to slow its spread corona virus since the pandemic started earlier this year. With no end in sight, many have gone beyond standard surgical masks and are choosing to express themselves with more fashionable colors, patterns, flags and messages. Children arrive on the first day of school wearing masks with hearts, books, watermelons and musical notes written on them. A school assistant has a line of crayons on her mask, a friendly design for nervous kindergarten kids. On Madison Avenue, a woman wearing a matching designer mask and scarf walks quickly past an upscale clothing store. And behind it, there is another mask with a skull.

In Harlem, Hana Teferi walked out of a shop wearing a gold, black and silver Ethiopian mask which she wore in honor of her Ethiopian family. And actor Fredric Michaels wears a kente mask that reflects his African heritage. Camouflage masks are commonly used. An outdoor man dressed in camouflage from head to toe in a mask to match. A construction worker chooses camouflage, and two of her friends, Samantha Fernandez and Unique Corella, wear matching blue camouflage masks. Senior citizen Doris Shapiro wears an orange sequined mask and hat. The bright colors match her view: “I want to dance. I want to have fun, “he said.

Kai Waithe, in a fuchsia mask and purple hair extensions posing for a portrait: “I think being a creative person, through music and speech, and living in NYC has helped me with my fashion sense. I only wear what I feel, “he said. Retired Gil Gainey, who worked for many years in the human resources department at the hospital, wearing a paisley mask: “I’m very health conscious,” he said. We don’t know when this will go away, so we’d better be fashionable. “Teacher Amanda Clarke rushes to Brooklyn high school with a message on her mask, and on the minds of many people:” CHOOSE! “

(This story has been published from a wire agency feed with no modifications to the text. Only the title has been changed.)

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Simultaneous mutation of two nonessential genes can lead to the death of cancer cells | Instant News


Ludwig cancer research, has revealed a new instance in which simultaneous mutation of two nonessential genes;none of which are vital for the survival of cells can cause cancer cell death.

Headed by member of the Ludwig San Diego Richard Kolodner and published in the current The proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the study also shows that it is a deadly combination, or “synthetic lethality” can be reproduced in a drug-like molecule that can be used to treat cancer.

The development and FDA approval of a new generation of drugs called PARP inhibitors, for the treatment of malignant tumors with defects in tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 that cause breast cancer, ovarian and many other cancers, have generated significant interest in using synthetic lethal interactions to develop cancer treatments.

Scientists, including group Kolodner, are on the hunt for other synthetic lethal interactions in cancers. “PARP inhibitors are a major step forward, but they are not perfect. Patients can become resistant to them, so there’s always a need for new and better treatments.”

Building from research done on yeast cells, Kolodner and his colleagues found that disabling or removing FEN1 gene of mammals, which is essential for DNA replication and repair, is fatal to cancer cells, mutated forms of the genes BRCA1 and 2.

We have provided information that should make people think FEN1 as a potential interesting therapeutic target and showed how yeast can be used to predict a number of synthetic lethal interactions, which can then be tested in a bona FIDE cancer cell lines with genetic instruments”.

Richard Kolodner, Professor, Professor, Department of cellular and molecular medicine, University of California, San Diego

In previous work with yeast Saccharomyces as a model to identify and study genes that maintain the integrity of the genome, Kolodner and his colleagues found that the RAD27 gene, and of synthetic lethal interactions with the 59 other nonessential genes of yeast.

Two such genes, it should be noted RAD51 and RAD52 play a role in recombination of DNA.

FEN1 is a close analogue or homologue, RAD27 in mammals. Based on their studies of yeast, Kolodner and his colleagues predicted that FEN1 synthetic lethal interactions with BRCA1 and BRCA2, which function in the same biochemical reactions in mammals, as RAD51 and RAD52 to do in yeast.

To test this hypothesis, they synthesized four FEN1-blocking molecules and used the best of them, S8, to suppress the activity of FEN1 in tumor cell lines with or without BRCA mutations. C8 proved to be an effective killer of BRCA-mutant cells.

Then they demonstrated that genetic disorders FEN1 expression had the same effect that S8 did for the breast cancer gene-mutant cells, confirming that the S8 worked, causing synthetic lethality.

Finally, the researchers instilled in C8-C8 sensitive and-resistant tumors in mice and showed that C8 significantly inhibited the growth of C8-sensitive tumors, but not in C8-resistant tumors.

Interestingly, not all cancer cell lines and tumors that responded to treatment C8 was deficient BRCA, K, indicating that FEN1 and synthetic lethal interactions with other genes as well.

These results reveal FEN1 as a novel target for drugs for the treatment of various malignant tumors by induction of synthetic lethality.

They also demonstrate that yeast-based screens provide a powerful tool to accelerate the discovery of synthetic lethal interactions for potential therapeutic value;it is an ongoing project in the laboratory Kolodner.

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Neurologists on the map touch the gatekeeper of the brain in unprecedented detail | Instant News


Many people with autism experience sensory hypersensitivity, attention deficit, sleep disorders. One area of the brain that were involved in these symptoms of the thalamic reticular nucleus (ryat), which is believed to acts as a gatekeeper for sensory information entering the cortex.

A group of researchers from mit and the broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, is now visible in unprecedented detail TIN, showing that the region contains two different subnets of neurons with different functions. The obtained results have more to offer researchers specific targets for drug development that could facilitate some of the senses, sleep and attention symptoms of autism, says Guoping Feng, one of the leaders of the research team.

The idea is that you can very specifically one group of neurons without affecting the whole brain, and other cognitive functions”.

Guoping Feng, the James and Patricia Poitras Professor of neuroscience at MIT and a member of the Institute of mit McGovern Institute for brain research

Feng; SMA-Fu, Deputy Director of neurobiology in the center of the broad Institute of psychiatric research, Stanley; and Joshua Levin, senior group leader at broad Institute, senior author of the study, which appears today in Nature. Leading the report’s authors, former post-doctoral research fellowship at MIT, Yinqing Li, a former postdoc of the broad Institute Violeta Lopez-Huerta, and a wide researcher of the Institute of Xian Adiconis.

Some populations

When you receive sensory information from the eyes, ears and other sensory organs to our brain, it goes first to the thalamus, which then relays it to the cortex for higher level processing. The disadvantages of these thalamo-cortical circuit may lead to attention deficit, hypersensitivity to noise and other stimuli, and sleep problems.

One of the main ways, which controls the flow of information from the thalamus and cortex TRN, which is responsible for blocking distracting stimuli. In 2016, Feng and MIT associate Professor Michael Halassa, who is also the author of the new Nature the paper found that the loss under the Ptchd1 gene significantly affect the function of the RNN. In boys, the loss of this gene, which is carried on the X chromosome, may lead to attention deficit, hyperactivity, aggression, mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders.

In this study, the researchers found that when the Gene Ptchd1 was knocked out in mice, animals showed many of the same behavioral defects seen in humans. When he was knocked out only in TRN, the mice showed only hyperactivity, attention deficit, sleep disturbances, assuming that the BCH is responsible for these symptoms.

In the new study, the researchers wanted to try to learn more about specific types of neurons found in the BCH, in the hope of finding new methods of treating hyperactivity and attention deficit. Currently, these symptoms are most commonly treated with stimulants, such as ritalin, which have a wide impact on the entire brain.

“Our goal was to find a particular part, to modulate functions of the thalamo-cortical output and link it to neurological development,” says Feng. “We decided to try using single-cell technology to analyze what types of cells are there and what genes are expressed. There are certain genes that are amenable to therapy with drugs that are included as a target?”

To explore this possibility, the researchers sequenced the messenger RNA molecules found in the neurons of the RNN, which reveals the genes that are expressed in these cells. This allowed them to identify several hundred genes that can be used to differentiate the cells into two subpopulations, based on how strongly they Express certain genes.

They found that one of these cell populations is at the core of TIN, and the other forms a very thin layer around the nucleus. These two populations also form connections of various parts of the thalamus, the researchers found. On the basis of these compounds, the researchers suggest that cells mainly involved in transmission of sensory information to the cortex when cells in the outer layer appear to help to coordinate information across different senses, such as sight and hearing.

“Targets amenable to therapy with drugs included”

Now scientists plan to study the different roles that these two populations of neurons can have different neurological symptoms, including attention deficit, hypersensitivity, and sleep disturbance. Using genetic and optogenetic methods, they hope to determine the effects of activation or inhibition of different TIN cell types, or genes that are expressed in those cells.

“This may help us in the future to develop specific tasks, amenable to therapy with preparations that have the potential to modulate different functions,” says Feng. “Thalamo-cortical circuits control many different things such as sensory perception, sleep, attention, and cognition, and it may well be that they can be targeted more specifically.”

This approach can also be useful for treating disorders of attention or sensitivity, even when not caused by defects in the function of TIN, say the researchers.

“Trn-target where if you can improve its function, you may be able to fix the problems caused by violations of thalamo-cortical circuits,” says Feng. “Of course, we are far from development of any kind of treatment, but the potential that we can use single-cell technology to not only understand how the brain organizes itself, but also how brain function can be separated, allowing to identify more specific targets that modulate specific functions.”

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Coronavirus Outbreak: Why do more men die from COVID-19 infections than women? | Instant News


Around the world – in China, Italy, the United States, and Australia – a lot more men than women is dying from COVID-19.

Why? Is it the genes, hormones, immune system – or behavior – that make men more susceptible to disease?

I see it as an interaction of all these factors and it is not unique to the SARS-Cov-2 virus – different responses between men and women are typical of many diseases in many mammals.

The numbers are bleak

In Italy and China the death of men is more than double the death of women. In New York City men are about 61 percent of patients died. Australia is preparing to have it similar results, although here it is mostly in 7Age groups 0-79 and 80-89.

Gender bias in COVID-19 death is part of a much bigger picture – and a much older picture

One major variable in COVID-19 severity is age. But this cannot explain the gender bias seen globally because of the increase in male mortality rates the same in every age group from 30 to 90+. Women also live an average life six years longer than men, so there are more older women than men in a vulnerable population.

Another major factor is the presence of chronic diseases, in particular heart disease, diabetes and cancer. This is all more common in men than women, who might accounts for some biases.

But then we must ask why men are more susceptible to diseases that put them at greater risk of COVID-19.

Men and women are biologically different

Men and women are different in their sex chromosomes and their genes. Women have two intermediate copies of chromosomes (called X). Men only have a single X chromosome and a small Y chromosome that contains several genes.

One of these Y genes (SRY) directs the embryo to become male by starting testicular development in the XY embryo. Testes make male hormones and hormones make babies develop as men.

In the absence of SRY, the ovaries form and make female hormones.

This is the hormone that controls most of the differences that are clearly visible between men and women – genitals and breasts, hair type and body – and has a big influence on behavior.

Y chromosome and hormones

The Y chromosome contains almost no gene other than SRY but is full of repetitive sequences (“junk DNA”).

Maybe “toxic Y” can lose regulation for aging. This can accelerate aging in men and make them more susceptible to viruses.

But a bigger problem for men is the male hormone released by the action of SRY. Testosterone levels are involved in many diseases, especially heart disease, and can affect age.

Men are also harmed by them low estrogen level, which protects women from many diseases, including heart disease.

Male hormones also influence behavior. Testosterone Levels has been credited with large differences between men and women in risk behaviors such as smoking and drinking too much alcohol, as well as reluctance to heed health advice and seek medical help.

Extreme difference in smoking rates between men and women in China (nearly half of men smoke and only 2% of women) can help explain the very high ratio of male deaths (more than double women). Not only is smoking a serious risk factor for any respiratory disease, but it also causes lung cancer, a further risk factor.

Smoking rates are lower and not gender based in many other countries, so risky behavior cannot in itself explain gender differences in COVID-19 deaths. Maybe the sex chromosome has another effect.

COVID-19 deaths in Australia (last updated 19 April 2020). Australian Government, Ministry of Health

COVID-19 deaths in Australia (last updated 19 April 2020). Australian Government, Ministry of Health

Two X chromosomes are better than one

The X chromosome contains more than 1,000 genes with functions in everything including routine metabolism, blood clots and brain development.

The presence of two X chromosomes in XX women gives a buffer if the genes in one X mutate.

XY males do not have these X chromosome reserves. That’s why boys suffer from many sex-related diseases such as blood disease (Poor blood clotting).

The number of X chromosomes also has a large effect on many metabolic characters separate from the effects of sex hormones, as revealed by studies in mice.

Not only do females have multiple doses of many X genes, but they can also have the benefit of two different versions of each gene.

This X effect explains why males die at a higher rate than females at every age from birth.

And another male problem is the immune system.

We have known that for a long time women have a stronger immune system than men. This is not all good, because it makes women more susceptible to autoimmune diseases such as lupus and multiple sclerosis.

But it gives women the advantage when it comes to vulnerability to viruses, because many studies in rats and humans to show. This helps explain why men are more susceptible to many viruses, including SARS and MERS.

There are at least 60 immune response genes on the X chromosome, and it seems that this higher dose and has two different versions gives women a broader spectrum of defenses.

Sex differences in disease – the big picture

Gender differences in frequency, severity and efficacy of treatment for many diseases are shown a long time ago. COVID-19 is part of a larger pattern in which men lose – at every age.

This isn’t just humans – this applies to most mammals.

Are sex differences in disease susceptibility merely a side effect of genetic and hormonal differences? Or are they, like many other traits, chosen differently in men and women because of differences in life strategies?

His recommended that male mammals spread their genes by winning competition for partners, so controlling risky behavior hormones is a plus for men.

It is also recommended that female mammals be selected for traits that enhance their ability to care for young children, hence their immune system is stronger. This makes sense for most mammals for centuries.

So the gender bias in COVID-19 death is part of a much bigger picture – and a much older picture – about sex differences in genes, chromosomes, and hormones that lead to very different responses to all types of diseases, including COVID -19.Conversation

Jenny Graves, Honorable Professor of Genetics, La Trobe University

This article has been republished from Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read original article.

Updated Date: April 20 2020 14:58:29 IST

Tag:

Corona virus,

COVID-19,

Gender,

Genes,

Genetics,

Male Female,

Male,

Sex,

Woman

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