Tag Archives: Indonesia

BBC – Voyage – The island of Asia with five distinct genres | Instant News



The Indonesian island of Sulawesi stretches like a drunken starfish into the western Pacific Ocean, its four emerald branches reaching the seas of Celebes, Moluccas and Flores. On its southwestern tip is the smog-smothered port city of Makassar, long an important trading post and Indonesia’s eastern gateway to the world. sea ​​and watched the curving prows of the prahu sailboats moving elegantly through the chaos of Paotere harbor, here to unload their abundance of sea cucumbers, cuttlefish and other strange creatures from the depths. These ships belong to the Bugis people, a maritime society notable for its recognition of five distinct genera. Although they are only about six million in a country of 270 million people, the Bugis are very influential. “The Bugis have words for five sexes,” said Sharyn Graham Davies, an anthropologist at Monash University of Melbourne, Australia, be in the world. “The Bugis are the largest ethnic group in South Sulawesi. Their heart is in Makassar and the rice-growing countryside north of the city, but their prowess as sailors and traders established their influence across Indonesia and the Malay Archipelago (and sowed fear in the hearts of European colonizers, who saw them as ruthless pirates). Although they number only around six million in a country of 270 million people, the Bugis are very influential: notable examples include Jusuf Kalla, double vice president of Indonesia; and Najib Razak, former prime minister of Malaysia. “The Bugis are among the strongest ethical groups in the archipelago, politically, economically and culturally said Sudirman Nasir, a Bugis who works in public health in South Sulawesi. society, makkunrai and oroani correspond to Western concepts of the cis woman and the cis man. The Calalai are born with horns. female ps but assume traditionally male gender roles; they can wear shirts and pants, smoke cigarettes, wear short hair, and do manual labor. Calabai was born with a masculine body but takes on female gender roles, wearing dresses and makeup and growing her hair long. “Many Calabai people work in beauty salons,” said Neni, a Calabai from the village of Segiri, north of Makassar. “We also help plan weddings and play at wedding ceremonies.” You might also be interested in: • The third sex of southern Mexico • The tiny island traded for Manhattan • The islands where women make the rules Calabai doesn’t pretend to be a woman, Davies explained, but present their own sequel female behaviors that would be frowned upon in Makkunrai women, such as wearing miniskirts, smoking, and acting in a more outwardly sexualized manner. Within Bugis society, the Calabai and Calalai may be frowned upon in some quarters, but they are widely tolerated, if not seen as playing an important role in society, and are generally not attacked or persecuted by their own community. bissu, which is considered neither masculine nor feminine but representative of the entire gender spectrum. Bissu, like calabai and calalai, display their identity through the dress: they often wear flowers, a traditionally female symbol, but wear the keris dagger associated with men. Many bissu were born intersex, but the term has implications beyond biology. While the Bugis genus is often described as a specter, the bissu are deemed to be above this classification: spiritual beings who are not halfway between male and female, but rather embody the power of the two at a time. “It is said that during their descent from heaven bissu did not part ways and did not become male or female like most people,” Davies explained, “but remained a sacred unit of the two. “As such, they are seen as intermediaries between worlds and occupy a shaman role in the Bugis religion. A serene old lady and a giggling chicken were my traveling companions in a battered sky blue bemo (public minibus) then that I was leaving Makassar. As we rushed north, jagged shards of limestone karst, thick with jungle, leapt skyward from the surrounding rice fields. It was sowing season, and we passed a field where a mechanical plow was pushed, preceded by a ritual parade of bissu, recognizable by their dresses of red, gold and green and their headdresses adorned with colorful flowers. We continued. The evening sun began to shine like coal, and the Bugis farmers, bending down to tend the rice fields, cast curving and elongated shadows. As darkness fell we arrived in the town of Segiri, where I followed a crowd of ‘inhabitants in a large wood. to house. Five bissu were gathered in the center of the room around a pile of rice. Fragrant incense smoke swirled in the near darkness, and the sound of drums and chanting quickened to a fever as the bissu danced jerkily in a trance state. In unison, they drew their keris daggers and began stabbing the wavy blades in their own temples, palms, even their eyelids – apparently feeling no pain or barely drawing a drop of blood. Undergoing this ritual, known as ma’giri ‘, and coming out unscathed is considered proof that the bissu have been possessed by the gods and are ready to give blessings. This ceremony, like the parade in the rice field, aimed to ensure a bountiful harvest; good health and successful pregnancies are other expected results of a bissu blessing. “Becoming a Bissu is a call from the soul,” explained Eka, the Bissu chef to Segiri. “We travel very early to study with a senior bissu and learn our secret language, Basa To Ri Langiq (Language of Heaven), which only we can understand.” In addition to granting blessings, Eka officiates at weddings. “The Bugis are treating us very well,” said Eka. “They have to do it, because we are monitoring all Bugis customs.” Although their religious rituals and conception of gender are steeped in pre-Islamic ideas, most Bugis are Muslims, many are devoutly so. “There were complex interactions between Bugis values ​​and Islamic teaching,” Nasir explained. “This has led to forms of Islamo-Bugis syncretism.” Since the middle of the 20th century, Indonesian society at large has become less tolerant of non-binary gender ideas. For example, as Davies explained, Bugis often seek out the bissu to bless an upcoming hajj in Mecca. Many Calalai and Calabai struggle with their sexuality and sense of self, she also noted, believing that their lifestyle (which may include same-sex relationships) is a sin according to Islamic beliefs, but also that they are as they are because it was prescribed. by Allah. For the same reason, they do not have the idea of ​​being born in the wrong body; although some calabai may undergo cosmetic procedures to make them more feminine, they will not see themselves as female, as Davies discovered in his fieldwork.slam began to prevail in Indonesia in the 1400s , but for centuries the local people have reconciled their variegation. perception of gender with the new faith. “European sailors have been writing about their thoughts on gender diversity in South Sulawesi since at least the 1500s,” Davies explained. In 1848, British colonialist James Brooke wrote in his diary: “The strangest custom that I have observed is that some men dress like women, and some women like men; not occasionally, but their entire life, devoting themselves to the occupations and activities of their adopted sex. “During his visit to South Sulawesi, Brooke was even more surprised by the social equality he observed between women and men, a sentiment shared by fellow imperialist Thomas Stanford Raffles. A third gender known as The name waria (a coat rack of wanita, meaning woman, and pria, meaning man) has long been recognized in Indonesian societies. Since the mid-twentieth century, however, Indonesian society as a whole has become less tolerant of gender non-binary ideas, which resulted in persecution of the Calabai and the Bissu in particular. Beginning in the 1950s, a wave of violent attacks began against the LGBTQ community. ”When the rebellion movement Darul Islam by Kahar Muzakkar wanted to establish an Islamic state in the 1950s, the bissu were arrested, tortured and forced to repent, “said Nurhayatai Rahman Mattameng., Bugis philologist. Some bissu shaved their heads in public shame; some were killed. “During the New Order era under President Suharto (1967-1998), there was an initiative called Operation Repentance,” Mattameng added. “All the Bissu people were forced to [renounce] In Latang, the ancestral religion of the Bugis, and instead choose one of the officially recognized religions in Indonesia. “In 2001, Islamic extremists burned down the Makassar headquarters of GAYa Celebes, a gay rights organization. In 2018, the Jakarta Post reported that transgender women were arrested and held in detention centers in the Indonesian capital, in order to “deter” those identified as waria. “Bissu, calalai and calabai face a lot of stigma and discrimination, which unfortunately increases with their growing assertiveness. of political Islam, “Nasir said.” At the societal level, there is a strong tendency towards increased piety and puritanism, which could be compared to that of born again Christians in the West. The future of these persecuted people is not very bright. “Eka agreed that the future looks bleak.” The number of teachers who know the Bissu routes is decreasing. The same goes for people’s interest in living as a Calabai, ”Eka said. In the future, the bissu will be threatened with extinction. “However, not everyone is so pessimistic about the future. There is help in the form of Halilintar Lathief, a Bugi Activist, artist and anthropologist. Lathief’s organization, Latar Nusa, is growing. bat to revitalize the Bissu and Calabai culture by preserving traditional literature and empowering them to harness the economic benefits of their traditional ritual roles by seeking paid work as bridal makeup artists, wedding planners and “In the beginning, the trauma of persecution they had faced meant that no one wanted to become or pretend to be a bissu, “Lathief said.” They were afraid of being arrested or killed; some were ashamed. Now, after several years, there is many more people who identify as calabai, and others who are proud to call themselves bissu. ”Our Unique World is a BBC travel series that celebrates what sets us apart and sets us apart in exp worshiping quirky subcultures and obscure communities Join over three million BBC Travel fans by liking us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter and Instagram.If you liked this story, sign up for the weekly newsletter of bbc.com titled “The Essential List”. handpicked selection of stories from BBC Future, Culture, Worklife and Travel, delivered to your inbox every Friday.



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BBC – Voyage – The island of Asia with five distinct genres | Instant News



The Indonesian island of Sulawesi stretches like a drunken starfish into the western Pacific Ocean, its four emerald branches reaching the seas of Celebes, Moluccas and Flores. On its southwestern tip is the smog-smothered port city of Makassar, long an important trading post and Indonesia’s eastern gateway to the world. sea ​​and watched the curving prows of the prahu sailboats moving elegantly through the chaos of Paotere harbor, here to unload their abundance of sea cucumbers, cuttlefish and other strange creatures from the depths. These ships belong to the Bugis people, a maritime society notable for its recognition of five distinct genera. Although they are only about six million in a country of 270 million people, the Bugis are very influential. “The Bugis have words for five sexes,” said Sharyn Graham Davies, an anthropologist at Monash University of Melbourne, Australia, be in the world. “The Bugis are the largest ethnic group in South Sulawesi. Their heart is in Makassar and the rice-growing countryside north of the city, but their prowess as sailors and traders established their influence across Indonesia and the Malay Archipelago (and sowed fear in the hearts of European colonizers, who saw them as ruthless pirates). Although they number only around six million in a country of 270 million people, the Bugis are very influential: notable examples include Jusuf Kalla, double vice president of Indonesia; and Najib Razak, former prime minister of Malaysia. “The Bugis are among the strongest ethical groups in the archipelago, politically, economically and culturally said Sudirman Nasir, a Bugis who works in public health in South Sulawesi. society, makkunrai and oroani correspond to Western concepts of the cis woman and the cis man. The Calalai are born with horns. female ps but assume traditionally male gender roles; they can wear shirts and pants, smoke cigarettes, wear short hair, and do manual labor. Calabai was born with a masculine body but takes on female gender roles, wearing dresses and makeup and growing her hair long. “Many Calabai people work in beauty salons,” said Neni, a Calabai from the village of Segiri, north of Makassar. “We also help plan weddings and play at wedding ceremonies.” You might also be interested in: • The third sex of southern Mexico • The tiny island traded for Manhattan • The islands where women make the rules Calabai doesn’t pretend to be a woman, Davies explained, but present their own sequel female behaviors that would be frowned upon in Makkunrai women, such as wearing miniskirts, smoking, and acting in a more outwardly sexualized manner. Within Bugis society, the Calabai and Calalai may be frowned upon in some quarters, but they are widely tolerated, if not seen as playing an important role in society, and are generally not attacked or persecuted by their own community. bissu, which is considered neither masculine nor feminine but representative of the entire gender spectrum. Bissu, like calabai and calalai, display their identity through the dress: they often wear flowers, a traditionally female symbol, but wear the keris dagger associated with men. Many bissu were born intersex, but the term has implications beyond biology. While the Bugis genus is often described as a specter, the bissu are deemed to be above this classification: spiritual beings who are not halfway between male and female, but rather embody the power of the two at a time. “It is said that during their descent from heaven bissu did not part ways and did not become male or female like most people,” Davies explained, “but remained a sacred unit of the two. “As such, they are seen as intermediaries between worlds and occupy a shaman role in the Bugis religion. A serene old lady and a giggling chicken were my traveling companions in a battered sky blue bemo (public minibus) then that I was leaving Makassar. As we rushed north, jagged shards of limestone karst, thick with jungle, leapt skyward from the surrounding rice fields. It was sowing season, and we passed a field where a mechanical plow was pushed, preceded by a ritual parade of bissu, recognizable by their dresses of red, gold and green and their headdresses adorned with colorful flowers. We continued. The evening sun began to shine like coal, and the Bugis farmers, bending down to tend the rice fields, cast curving and elongated shadows. As darkness fell we arrived in the town of Segiri, where I followed a crowd of ‘inhabitants in a large wood. to house. Five bissu were gathered in the center of the room around a pile of rice. Fragrant incense smoke swirled in the near darkness, and the sound of drums and chanting quickened to a fever as the bissu danced jerkily in a trance state. In unison, they drew their keris daggers and began stabbing the wavy blades in their own temples, palms, even their eyelids – apparently feeling no pain or barely drawing a drop of blood. Undergoing this ritual, known as ma’giri ‘, and coming out unscathed is considered proof that the bissu have been possessed by the gods and are ready to give blessings. This ceremony, like the parade in the rice field, aimed to ensure a bountiful harvest; good health and successful pregnancies are other expected results of a bissu blessing. “Becoming a Bissu is a call from the soul,” explained Eka, the Bissu chef to Segiri. “We travel very early to study with a senior bissu and learn our secret language, Basa To Ri Langiq (Language of Heaven), which only we can understand.” In addition to granting blessings, Eka officiates at weddings. “The Bugis are treating us very well,” said Eka. “They have to do it, because we are monitoring all Bugis customs.” Although their religious rituals and conception of gender are steeped in pre-Islamic ideas, most Bugis are Muslims, many are devoutly so. “There were complex interactions between Bugis values ​​and Islamic teaching,” Nasir explained. “This has led to forms of Islamo-Bugis syncretism.” Since the middle of the 20th century, Indonesian society at large has become less tolerant of non-binary gender ideas. For example, as Davies explained, Bugis often seek out the bissu to bless an upcoming hajj in Mecca. Many Calalai and Calabai struggle with their sexuality and sense of self, she also noted, believing that their lifestyle (which may include same-sex relationships) is a sin according to Islamic beliefs, but also that they are as they are because it was prescribed. by Allah. For the same reason, they do not have the idea of ​​being born in the wrong body; although some calabai may undergo cosmetic procedures to make them more feminine, they will not see themselves as female, as Davies discovered in his fieldwork.slam began to prevail in Indonesia in the 1400s , but for centuries the local people have reconciled their variegation. perception of gender with the new faith. “European sailors have been writing about their thoughts on gender diversity in South Sulawesi since at least the 1500s,” Davies explained. In 1848, British colonialist James Brooke wrote in his diary: “The strangest custom that I have observed is that some men dress like women, and some women like men; not occasionally, but their entire life, devoting themselves to the occupations and activities of their adopted sex. “During his visit to South Sulawesi, Brooke was even more surprised by the social equality he observed between women and men, a sentiment shared by fellow imperialist Thomas Stanford Raffles. A third gender known as The name waria (a coat rack of wanita, meaning woman, and pria, meaning man) has long been recognized in Indonesian societies. Since the mid-twentieth century, however, Indonesian society as a whole has become less tolerant of gender non-binary ideas, which resulted in persecution of the Calabai and the Bissu in particular. Beginning in the 1950s, a wave of violent attacks began against the LGBTQ community. ”When the rebellion movement Darul Islam by Kahar Muzakkar wanted to establish an Islamic state in the 1950s, the bissu were arrested, tortured and forced to repent, “said Nurhayatai Rahman Mattameng., Bugis philologist. Some bissu shaved their heads in public shame; some were killed. “During the New Order era under President Suharto (1967-1998), there was an initiative called Operation Repentance,” Mattameng added. “All the Bissu people were forced to [renounce] In Latang, the ancestral religion of the Bugis, and instead choose one of the officially recognized religions in Indonesia. “In 2001, Islamic extremists burned down the Makassar headquarters of GAYa Celebes, a gay rights organization. In 2018, the Jakarta Post reported that transgender women were arrested and held in detention centers in the Indonesian capital, in order to “deter” those identified as waria. “Bissu, calalai and calabai face a lot of stigma and discrimination, which unfortunately increases with their growing assertiveness. of political Islam, “Nasir said.” At the societal level, there is a strong tendency towards increased piety and puritanism, which could be compared to that of born again Christians in the West. The future of these persecuted people is not very bright. “Eka agreed that the future looks bleak.” The number of teachers who know the Bissu routes is decreasing. The same goes for people’s interest in living as a Calabai, ”Eka said. In the future, the bissu will be threatened with extinction. “However, not everyone is so pessimistic about the future. There is help in the form of Halilintar Lathief, a Bugi Activist, artist and anthropologist. Lathief’s organization, Latar Nusa, is growing. bat to revitalize the Bissu and Calabai culture by preserving traditional literature and empowering them to harness the economic benefits of their traditional ritual roles by seeking paid work as bridal makeup artists, wedding planners and “In the beginning, the trauma of persecution they had faced meant that no one wanted to become or pretend to be a bissu, “Lathief said.” They were afraid of being arrested or killed; some were ashamed. Now, after several years, there is many more people who identify as calabai, and others who are proud to call themselves bissu. ”Our Unique World is a BBC travel series that celebrates what sets us apart and sets us apart in exp worshiping quirky subcultures and obscure communities Join over three million BBC Travel fans by liking us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter and Instagram.If you liked this story, sign up for the weekly newsletter of bbc.com titled “The Essential List”. handpicked selection of stories from BBC Future, Culture, Worklife and Travel, delivered to your inbox every Friday.



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Indonesia provides 1,000 scholarships to students sir | Instant News


KARACHI: Indonesia announced 1,000 scholarships for Pakistani students to further enhance friendly and amicable relations between the two countries.

When giving a briefing on the 2021 plan, the Indonesian Consulate for Information and Socio-Culture, Ibnu Sulhan, said that his government had drawn up a comprehensive plan to bring the people of the two nations closer together and for that, Indonesian language courses were free. will be offered to students starting April. He said trade between the two countries was gradually increasing at a record pace despite the coronavirus pandemic. He said at the direction of the Indonesian government, the consulate in Karachi was working on a plan to strengthen cultural and social ties between the two countries. He said Pakistani students had been offered 1,000 scholarships at 23 leading universities in Indonesia offering graduation, masters and PhD programs, said Sulhan.

The Information & Socio-Cultural Consul said that the registration for fully funded student scholarships will remain open from April 25 to August 2021. He hopes to increase the number of scholarships gradually. The envoy said that to further strengthen relations between the two countries in the fields of business and culture, the Indonesian government has decided to launch a free virtual language course. Simultaneously, a web series will be kicking off on social media highlighting various aspects of Indonesia, while the Indonesian Consulate web portal will also be coming soon. He said the Consulate was facilitating investors from Pakistan to invest in Indonesia and vice versa.

The consul said the Karachi business community is very important for Indonesia because a large part of their trade depends on the business community who live here.

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The 3rd wave of COVID-19 is sweeping the Asia-Pacific | Instant News


KARACHI, Pakistan

Amid increasing vaccinations around the world against the coronavirus pandemic, a third wave of viruses has hit the Asia-Pacific region.

Countries including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines, which have reported significant drops in infections over the past few months, are currently grappling with a new wave of COVID-19.

Hundreds of thousands of new infections have been reported in five populated countries over the past week, with India alone recording more than 500,000 new cases during the period.

The sharp rise in infections has forced the government to reimpose restrictions, including mini lockdowns, a curfew and a ban on large gatherings as overwhelmed hospitals are placed on high alert.

India – the world’s second most populous country after China – reported more than 68,000 new infections on Monday, the highest daily figure since October, bringing the overall tally to more than 12 million. The death toll has risen to more than 162,000.

The western state of Maharashtra, particularly its capital Mumbai, has been hit the hardest by the third wave, forcing state governments to impose a curfew starting on Sunday in a bid to contain the pandemic.

India’s Health Ministry announced on March 24 that it had detected a new “dual mutant variant” of the coronavirus, adding to concerns by health authorities, which have urged citizens to “strictly” follow safety precautions to reduce the existing burden. the hospital is overwhelmed.

In neighboring Pakistan, whose total cases have topped 660,000 with more than 14,000 deaths, the government has signaled further restrictions as the South Asian country has recorded more than 4,000 cases daily over the past five days.

Being one of the Asian countries hardest hit by the pandemic, Indonesia has so far reported more than 1.5 million cases and more than 40,500 deaths.

The situation in Bangladesh and the Philippines is no different, where authorities have reimposed restrictions including a ban on large gatherings and school closings to curb a rise in the number of infections.

“The situation this time is more dangerous because the continuing increase in the number of infections has taken less time than in the first and second waves,” said Dr. Rana Jawad Asghar, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Nebraska, told Anadolu. Agent.

Citing the current trajectory of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Asghar warned that if the ongoing trend continues, the three countries are likely to peak “soon” during the first wave.

Dr Md. Shahed Rafi Pavel, a Dhaka-based medical expert, said the third wave of the global pandemic was more dangerous in terms of infections and other effects.

Underscoring the current upward trend for the virus around the world, especially in South Asia, he said “new lockdowns [bans]”both on national and international routes are very important.

“At the very least, I urge relevant authorities from all states to immediately enforce a 21-day lockdown to stem the catastrophic virus that is currently passing through its third wave,” said Pavel, who is also chairman of the Bangladesh Doctors Foundation.

He claims that following the partial easing of restrictions on international flights, strains of COVID-19 similar to those in the UK and Africa have been reported in Bangladesh, home to more than 165 million people.

Vaccinations do not provide immediate relief

Health experts do not view immunization as a direct solution to the spike in the pandemic.

“These five countries combined make up more than 2 billion of the world’s population. It will take a long time to vaccinate such a large population, especially when the local health infrastructure is much less developed than in Europe and America,” said Asghar.

Citing the vaccination situation in Pakistan, he said that “over the past week, Pakistan has been giving an average of 13,196 doses of vaccine daily. At that rate, it would take 3,283 more days to deliver a sufficient dose for the other 10% of the population.”

“That’s 9 years to vaccinate 10% of the population.”

Pakistan’s already sluggish vaccination campaign is likely to take a further hit following the delay in the supply of 17 million doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine provided by the World Health Organization-led COVAX program for developing countries.

The promised vaccine is due to be received by the end of March. But India’s Serum Institute, which supplies doses to world health agencies, has diverted supplies to meet domestic needs.

Pakistan is currently vaccinating frontline health care workers and the elderly using doses of the Sinopharm vaccine donated by China.

The state of immunization, according to Asghar, is relatively better in India, which has developed its own vaccine, and Indonesia.

New Delhi, according to local media, has delivered 60 million doses of the coronavirus vaccine so far, becoming the second country after the US to reach this milestone.

Indonesia, the world’s fourth most populous country, aims to vaccinate 181.5 million people a year.

“To achieve herd immunity through vaccination will take a long time, whereas the idea of ​​herd immunity through natural viruses has failed,” said Asghar.

“Let’s take an example in Brazil, where 50% to 60% of the population has been infected but the variant virus has re-infected a large number of people who have recovered in recent months,” he continued.

Option is just a safety precaution

Asghar observes that following security precautions is the only option available to Third World countries to avoid a spike in infections.

“In my opinion, at least for the next two years, following security measures is the only option for the community [of developing nations], “he said, warning that” the coronavirus is not going anywhere despite being vaccinated. “

He also said that offices, shops and shopping malls should completely avoid central air conditioning for a year or two to reduce infections.


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Prime Minister Imran Khan tested positive for COVID after taking the Chinese vaccine | Instant News


Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan has tested positive for the coronavirus, his special assistant at the national health service, Faisal Sultan, said on Saturday.

Prime Minister Imran Khan tested positive for COVID after taking the Chinese vaccine

Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan has tested positive for the coronavirus, his special assistant at the national health service, Faisal Sultan, said on Saturday.

On Twitter, the Sultan said that Khan is self-isolating at home. This came a few days after Imran Khan received his first dose of the coronavirus vaccine.

“PM Imran Khan has tested positive for Covid-19 and is self-isolating at home,” tweeted Sultan.

Khan, 67, was vaccinated on Thursday with the China Sinopharm vaccine as part of a nationwide anti-coronavirus vaccination campaign.

Pakistan has reported 623,135 coronavirus cases so far. More than 13,700 people have died in the country from the virus.

(With input from ANI)

Disclaimer: This post was automatically published from an agency feed without any modification to the text and has not been reviewed by the editor

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