Tag Archives: Metabolism

“Reconnecting” metabolism in insulin-producing cells may help the treatment of type 2 diabetes-health | Instant News

Researchers have discovered a previously unknown method by which pancreatic cells determine how much insulin they secrete.It could provide a promising new target to develop drugs to increase insulin production in diabetic patients Type 2 diabetes.

In two recently published papers Cell metabolismScientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and their colleagues pointed out that an overlooked enzyme called pyruvate kinase is the main way for pancreatic beta cells to sense sugar levels and release the right amount of insulin.

Through several proof-of-concept experiments conducted on rodent and human pancreatic cells, the research team found that drugs that stimulate pyruvate kinase not only increase insulin secretion, but also have other metabolic protective effects on the liver, muscles, and red blood cells. Research results indicate that activation of pyruvate kinase may be a new way to increase insulin secretion to fight type 2 diabetes, but more research is needed before any new treatments are available.

Matthew Merrins, professor of medicine at the University of Western Australia School of Medicine and School of Public Health, who is in charge of this work, said: “Too much insulin will lower blood sugar to dangerous levels, and too much insulin can lead to diabetes.” The question to ask is: How do nutrients such as glucose and amino acids open up the beta cells in the pancreas to release the right amount of insulin?”

This work is based on a careful analysis of the contradictory timing of key biochemical events, when it was generally understood how pancreatic beta cells respond to nutrients in the blood. The researchers pointed out a new and richer model to understand how to control this important process to resolve these contradictions.

For decades, scientists have believed that mitochondria, the energy generators in cells, trigger insulin secretion. This is a natural explanation, because mitochondria produce the high-energy molecule ATP, and in the process deplete the low-energy form of ATP, ADP. The decline in ADP stimulates calcium, the ultimate trigger for the release of stored insulin.

But time makes no sense. Mitochondria are most active when insulin secretion has already begun, not before. In addition, the mitochondria will stall before they exhaust enough ADP to trigger insulin secretion.

The clues to resolve these obvious paradoxes came from the study of cardiomyocytes in the 1980s. At the time, scientists discovered that pyruvate kinase (which converts sugar into energy and does not rely on mitochondria) may also severely deplete ADP. This process occurs near the ADP sensor protein involved in insulin release in the pancreas. Mellins’ team believes that perhaps the pancreas uses this proximity to fine-tune insulin release.

In the initial experiment, the researchers provided sugar and ADP to pancreatic cell slices containing pyruvate kinase. Enzymes engulf these two components and deplete ADP. Since pyruvate kinase is located near the ADP sensor protein that triggers insulin secretion, it has a great effect.

“This is one of the important concepts in our paper: The location of the metabolism is critical to its function,” Merrins said.

The researchers used mouse and human islets, clusters of cells that release insulin, to try to stimulate the activity of pyruvate kinase. The drug that activates this enzyme increases the release of insulin four-fold, but only if there is enough sugar around-pyruvate kinase cannot be forced to release too much insulin.

Merrins said: “Pyruvate kinase does not change the amount of fuel that enters the cell, but only changes the way the fuel is used.” “Drugs with active pyruvate kinase can strongly promote insulin secretion without causing excessive insulin release. Hypoglycemia.”

Overall, they found a more complicated way, which is evidence of how pancreatic beta cells decide when and how much insulin they release, similar to a two-stroke engine. In the first cycle, pyruvate kinase processes blood sugar and consumes ADP. Mitochondria maintain this process by supplying more material to pyruvate kinase, which can cause ADP levels to collapse and ultimately stimulate enough calcium to enter the cell to release insulin.

In the second cycle, mitochondria transition from adding material to pyruvate kinase to producing the high-energy molecule ATP, which is necessary for the complete release of insulin. Then, the process will reset.

In an accompanying study by colleagues at Yale University Mellins, researchers studied how pyruvate kinase activator affects the metabolism of healthy and obese rats. In a series of experiments, they found that activating pyruvate kinase can increase insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, while improving glucose metabolism in the liver and red blood cells. This type of treatment may be useful for patients with type 2 diabetes, who cannot produce enough insulin and therefore have abnormal glucose metabolism.

Mellins said: “The therapeutic idea here is that we can rearrange our metabolism to trigger insulin secretion more effectively while improving the function of other organs.

(This story was posted from a telecommunications company feed and has not been modified.)

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A new therapeutic approach to maintain a free phase of Crohn’s disease that is free of inflammation | Instant News

Metabolism of intestinal stem cells is facilitated by mitochondria – power plants in cells. The chronic inflammation process inhibits cell metabolism and causes loss of function of these stem cells.

In collaboration with Helmholz Zentrum München and Université de Paris, the TUM research team has found this relationship by analyzing the intestinal epithelial cells of patients with Crohn’s disease and comparing them with the findings of mouse models.

The interrelated roles of stem cells and Paneth cells

Stem cells are indispensable for tissue maintenance and regeneration. Intestinal stem cells in the intestine mix with what are called Paneth cells, which are responsible for local immune defense and for creating an environment where stem cells can prosper, thus called the guardians of the stem cell recesses.

Patients suffering from Crohn’s disease have fewer Paneth cells and further, this is limited in its function. The research group examined the causes for changes in Paneth cells and sought to determine the importance of stem cell metabolism in this context.

In addition to the rat study, the researchers analyzed intestinal biopsies from Crohn’s disease patients, carefully characterizing the stem cell niche. After six months, the patient’s intestines are examined again endoscopically with a focus on finding signs of inflammation.

Predict recurrence of Crohn’s disease by observing the appearance of stem cells

This study shows that microscopic changes in the stem cell niche are very prevalent in patients who show symptoms of recurrence of inflammation after six months.

This change in the stem cell niche is a very early indicator to begin the inflammatory process. Therefore, the appearance of stem cell niches can be used to evaluate the possibility of disease recurrence after resection of parts of the intestine that were initially affected. This presents a reasonable starting point for therapeutic interventions. ”

Dirk Haller, Professor for Nutrition and Immunology at TUM

Restore the function of stem cells

In human patients and mouse models, changes in Paneth and stem cells coincide with decreased mitochondrial function.

Knowing that lower mitochondrial respiration causes changes in the stem cell niche, the researchers used dichloracetate (DCA), a substance that is applied in cancer therapy that leads to increased mitochondrial respiration.

The shift in cellular metabolism caused by DCA is able to restore the function of the intestinal stem cells of mice suffering from inflammation, as shown in intestinal organoids, organ structures that resemble ex vivo cultures.

Therapeutic approach to prolong the free phase of inflammation of Crohn’s disease

“These findings point to a new therapeutic approach to prolong the phase of the remission free of inflammation of Crohn’s disease,” said Eva Rath, scientist at TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan and research co-authors.

The aim of further research is to investigate the effects of DCA in animal and patient models in more detail. The so-called metabolic interventions – making targeted changes in cell metabolism – can prevent the loss of function of stem cells and Paneth cells, both of which maintain intestinal obstructions. This can cause prevention of subsequent inflammation.


Journal reference:

Khaloian, S., et al. (2020) Mitochondrial damage encourages the transition of intestinal stem cells into dysfunctional Paneth cells which predict recurrence of Crohn’s disease. Intestine. doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319514.


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Virtual Reality Games To Keep You Fit During COVID-19 Lockdown | Instant News

With the coronavirus crisis causing the closure of sports halls in countries around the world, many are forced to exercise at home.

Online video is a useful tool for in-door training, but virtual reality (VR) can also offer fun and effective training. In fact, there have been many success stories from people who have used virtual reality to destroy their fitness goals.

Here are some key tips for doing VR exercises that are safe and fun, as well as a list of the best games to help you burn calories.


Before you attach the headset, make sure you check this list to ensure safe and effective training.

  • Make sure you have enough space for your practice. Your space requirements will vary depending on your headset or game, so take the time to read in-game instructions headset manufacturer recommendations. Check your surroundings for sharp corners, tripping hazards, or where your headset cable might be tangled. Make sure you also cover all pets or children outdoors!
  • Protect your headset from sweat! Sweat and heat can accumulate quickly when you wear a headset and exercise. Consider buying a face plate shield that can be wiped off so you can keep it clean—This is from VR Cover good Or provide antibacterial or antiviral tissue. They are the cheapest and fastest solution if you ever need to refresh your technology. However, make sure that the tissue is alcohol free and non-abrasive, otherwise the tissue can be damaged.
  • Use a wrist strap on your controller. This will prevent accidents when you exercise.
  • Take time to warm up and cool down. As with any exercise, take the time to start and finish correctly to make sure you don’t pull muscles or hurt yourself.

After completing this preparation, you are ready to start choosing the way you want to exercise. VR Fitness Insider Note that almost all games can be exercises if you have fitness goals. By exaggerating your movements and adding weights (such as ankle weights, or even backpacks filled with books) when playing your favorite first person shooter, you will burn extra calories in no time.

For games that require you to stand still, why not try jogging right away? Or for games that you should avoid, try lunging or crouching instead. With this small change, you will get the best of all your VR experiences.

Choose a Game

The table below shows a list of some of the most calorie burning games that you can play in VR, with data taken from Institute of Health and Sports Virtual Reality. This organization was founded in 2017 to use sophisticated laboratory equipment to better understand the calorie impact of the VR experience on the human body.

The following explanation is about method behind counting calories burned while playing VR games: “While the badge displays estimated calories released per minute, the actual rank is based on the observed game MET score during testing, taking into account the basic metabolic rate of the assessor during rest. We use calorie estimates for general users because most people are not familiar with MET, which is a standard measure of exertion in kinesiology research. Comparisons with other activities, such as tennis, baseball, or boxing, are then based on available MET scores for these activities managed by the US government. “

VR Health Exercise Tracking Application

Another great addition to your new fitness regime is free VR Health Exercise Tracker application of the Virtual Reality Institute for Health and Exercise. This is the world’s first VR special calorie application built on hundreds of hours of VR-specific metabolic testing using research-grade equipment, making it the only official calorie tracker designed to be accurate for exercising in VR.

YUR Launches Fitness tracking VR Smartwatch

If you want to be truly high-tech, see this new tool from YUR: smartwatch virtual reality which allows you to track fitness metrics without wearable heart rate monitors from a virtual watch interface. YUR.watch includes features such as heart rate and calorie estimation, squat counters, daily calorie goals, and adjustable aesthetics.

It is currently launched with integration into four Oculus Quest games: OhShape, RacketNX, Sairento, and Synth Riders. Just enter the settings to activate YUR.

Dilan Shah, one of the founders of YUR said,During the last quarter we have seen extraordinary changes in the world because of COVID-19, people are looking for new ways to stay active while at home. Now, more than 5.1+ million exercises have been recorded by more than 60,000 users; and with so much time spent at home now is the time to join them.


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