Tag Archives: microbes

Doreen Fogle: Where did your leftovers go? | Instant News


Americans waste 30 to 40% of the food we produce. And where the waste goes is an important question because where you put it can help or harm the planet. There is no in between.

TPA

One way to dispose of your old vegetables and food scraps is to take them to a landfill. What is happening at the TPA may be different than you think.

Because landfills are deep enough and contain lots of things that will never go bad, food scraps that end up there don’t have what it needs to break down. The degraded microbes need oxygen from the air; they are aerobic microbes. They convert food waste into soil-like substances and they will release carbon dioxide (CO2), just as we do when we exhale. But not for long.

Any composting keeps food waste out of landfills which will cause even more damage to the planet. And although it may sound like a drop in the ocean, it is the collective little actions of individuals that speak clearly and can make a difference to help our planet.

With no fresh air entering, the waste immediately switches to anaerobic decomposition, which means it breaks down with microbes that don’t need oxygen.

The problem here is that instead of emitting CO2, anaerobic microbes emit methane. And even though CO2 is a greenhouse gas, methane is 28 times worse. This means that it stores 28 times more heat than CO2. So this is not a good way to dispose of our food waste.

And that’s a shame because 30,630,000 tonnes of food waste goes to landfills in the US alone each year, according to the EPA. This makes landfill food waste a major source of greenhouse gases.

PROGRAM Compost

A small portion of our leftover food becomes compost. And it offers a great solution.

In 2009, San Francisco launched mandatory recycling and composting regulations. The compost is collected together with green waste and transported to the city composting center. The compost produced is used by regional farmers and wineries. Overall, in 2012 the city had achieved a waste diversion rate of 80%.

Here in Nevada County we have a municipal composting program aimed at larger food waste processors. Check out Garbage Management, the Nevada County homepage and scroll down a bit to find out more.

Into the gutter?

You can throw some of your leftover food in a landfill. What happens then is that water enters the wastewater treatment plant and contributes to the bio-solids there. Methane is produced from biological solids. Several processing plants collect methane to burn for other energy purposes, but many are still not captured.

And if you have a septic tank, RotoRooter advises not to throw your leftovers in landfills.

DIY composting

This method of disposal is mutually beneficial for everyone. Composting allows microbes to work to break down your leftovers and many of the other organic matter you have on hand. You make sure they have food (leftovers and other organic matter), the right amount of humidity, fresh air, and aren’t too hot or too cold.

What compost can do for you is create a fertile change to your garden soil for more and healthier vegetables, herbs and flowers. But it is not a source of nutrition for your plants. It does have some of it.

The main benefit of compost is that it provides microbes that will thrive in your soil and continue to break down organic matter to make new nutrients available to your plant roots.

After all that decay occurs, a series of chemical reactions take place and a mixture of molecules is produced. This mixture is called humus. One type of molecule that results from this process is humin, a very large molecule full of carbon. Since humus is the end product of all putrefaction, it does not break down any further. This means that humus survives in the soil for hundreds or even thousands of years.

So composting food waste helps lock carbon into the soil. Take it from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere – a major greenhouse gas, through plant growth, and convert it to carbon in the soil to last for a very long time. So, if you compost your leftovers, and put them in your soil, you will not only benefit from better soil health and garden productivity, but you are also helping in the fight against climate change!

Make compost

There are so many ways to make compost! They can be very simple to get more involved. You will get more compost faster if you choose a method that requires more attention.

Basically, here’s how to make it. The organic material you need may be brown or green. Chocolate is higher in carbon and lower in nitrogen. Chocolates are things like fallen leaves, perfect for autumn collections, sticks, some paper, straw and the like.

Green is higher in nitrogen and usually also contains water. This includes leftovers (generally vegetative only), aged vegetable crops and minor pruning.

All of them already have microbes in them. Putting them together and adding just the right amount of moisture will allow microbes to multiply and destroy plant material. Turning the compost or in some other way aerating it makes the oxygen supply in the pile. If not refilled, the pile can become anaerobic. Which, as I noted earlier, releases methane. What we don’t want.

But compost can be simpler by using a cold pile that breaks down more slowly. You can even use a bucket in the garage. Or you can try worm composting. Getting fresh worm castings is one of the best things you can do for your plants, even your houseplants. And it can be done indoors.

There are countless resources for learning more about all methods. For starters, I recommend the Master Gardeners website, ncmg.ucanr.org. Check out the Compost is the Gardener’s Best Friend video from August 22, 2020, plus their resources.

There are tons of YouTube videos and books showing how to compost, several methods if you don’t have the page. Worm composting will provide you with the best fertilizer for your potted plants and can be done in a mud room, patio or garage. And composting buckets will give you something to add to even a small outdoor garden space.

Any composting keeps food waste out of landfills which will cause even more damage to the planet. And although it may sound like a drop in the ocean, it is the collective little actions of individuals that speak clearly and can make a difference to help our planet.

Doreen Fogle is a landscape designer and writer in Nevada County. More of her articles can be found on her website mydelightfulgardens.com and she can be reached at [email protected].

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Mosquito microbes stop spreading malaria in Kenya: study | Science | In-depth reporting on science and technology | DW | Instant News


Our headlines may be dominated by the spread of coronaviruses, but malaria remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries.

That World Health Organization reported 228 million cases of malaria in 2018, and most infections occur in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Read more: EU urges restrictions on the use of malaria drugs to treat COVID-19

More than 400,000 people died during that period, most (67%) were children under the age of five. It was said that due to supply chain problems caused by the corona virus, the number of deaths could double this year.

Malaria is transmitted to humans and other animals by female Anopheles mosquitoes when they “bite” and eat blood.

But new microbial discoveries in Kenya may potentially limit the spread of malaria, without causing much chaos in the wider ecosystem. Microbes, or insects, found in mosquitoes, are thought to stop transmission of malaria.

The researchers studied a mosquito infected with a microbe, Microsporidia MB, and found that none of them carried the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum. Researchers have published their findings in science journals, Natural Communication.

Read more: Nobel Prize in Medicine: Medicine helps the poor

More than 400,000 people die of malaria each year, especially children under five.

Scientists have been looking for naturally occurring microbes in mosquito populations in the hope of using them to eradicate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever.

Microsporidia MB is a single cell bug that lives in the gut and genitals of mosquitoes, where it produces spores. Found in 5% of mosquitoes in high-risk areas around Lake Victoria, Kenya, where researchers focus their work.

Researchers, who are biologists at International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, has suggested the use of mosquitoes infected with microbes, or just the spores they produce, as natural agents against malaria.

One way to do this is to infect male mosquitoes with insects in the laboratory and release them into the wild, where they, males, will transmit insects to female mosquitoes as they breed.

The researchers say at least 40% of the mosquito population must be infected with microbes in certain regions in order for this method to be effective or significantly reduce malaria transmission to humans.

While other methods to control the spread of malaria, such as pesticides, aim to kill as many mosquitoes as possible, biological methods may have fewer knock-on effects, which damage the surrounding ecosystem. Mosquitoes will live as an important part of the natural food chain in the region.

Read more: How deforestation can cause more infectious diseases

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Mosquito microbes stop spreading malaria in Kenya: study | Science | In-depth reporting on science and technology | DW | Instant News


Our headlines may be dominated by the spread of coronaviruses, but malaria remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries.

That World Health Organization reported 228 million cases of malaria in 2018, and most infections occur in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Read more: EU urges restrictions on the use of malaria drugs to treat COVID-19

More than 400,000 people died during that period, most (67%) were children under the age of five. It was said that due to supply chain problems caused by the corona virus, the number of deaths could double this year.

Malaria is transmitted to humans and other animals by female Anopheles mosquitoes when they “bite” and eat blood.

But new microbial discoveries in Kenya may potentially limit the spread of malaria, without causing much chaos in the wider ecosystem. Microbes, or insects, found in mosquitoes, are thought to stop transmission of malaria.

The researchers studied a mosquito infected with a microbe, Microsporidia MB, and found that none of them carried the parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium falciparum. Researchers have published their findings in science journals, Natural Communication.

Read more: Nobel Prize in Medicine: Medicine helps the poor

More than 400,000 people die of malaria each year, especially children under five.

Scientists have been looking for naturally occurring microbes in mosquito populations in the hope of using them to eradicate malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue fever.

Microsporidia MB is a single cell bug that lives in the gut and genitals of mosquitoes, where it produces spores. Found in 5% of mosquitoes in high-risk areas around Lake Victoria, Kenya, where researchers focus their work.

Researchers, who are biologists at International Center for Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) in the Kenyan capital, Nairobi, has suggested the use of mosquitoes infected with microbes, or just the spores they produce, as natural agents against malaria.

One way to do this is to infect male mosquitoes with insects in the laboratory and release them into the wild, where they, males, will transmit insects to female mosquitoes as they breed.

The researchers say at least 40% of the mosquito population must be infected with microbes in certain regions in order for this method to be effective or significantly reduce malaria transmission to humans.

While other methods to control the spread of malaria, such as pesticides, aim to kill as many mosquitoes as possible, biological methods may have fewer knock-on effects, which damage the surrounding ecosystem. Mosquitoes will live as an important part of the natural food chain in the region.

Read more: How deforestation can cause more infectious diseases

.



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Coronavirus | Humanity will overcome the pandemic, Modi said | Instant News


Humanity will definitely overcome Co-19 pandemicPrime Minister Narendra Modi said on Saturday, when he praised efforts made by various Ministries to help people during the closure.

COVID-19 | Interactive map of confirmed coronavirus cases in India

“The world fights with COVID-19. Humanity will definitely overcome this pandemic, “Mr Modi said in response to a tweet by the Indian Embassy in Switzerland.

Indian Tricolor measuring more than 1,000 meters is projected on Mount Matterhorn, Zermatt, Switzerland to express solidarity for all Indians in the war against COVID-19. A big thank you to @zermatt_tourism for its movement, “a tweet from the Indian Embassy said.

Mr Modi also responded to tweets from various Ministries and his cabinet colleagues about the work they were doing.

“Proud of the Indian Railroad team. They continue to help our citizens at this crucial time, “Mr Modi said in response to a tweet by the Minister of Railways Piyush Goyal. He said that while the passenger train had stopped, the Train did not stop the relief effort.

Also read: Coronavirus | Post-locking, India’s growth rate of infection has slowed, the Ministry said

Oil Minister Dharmendra Pradhan tweeted that he had thanked the gas cylinder shipping personnel for carrying out their responsibilities in meeting people’s needs during lockdown. Mr Modi responded with, “Kudos to all who work around the clock, throughout the country, to ensure India’s energy needs are met.”

The Income Tax Department said that as assistance to micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), a refund of income tax of ₹ 5,204 crore has been issued in the last 10 days for nearly 8.2 lakh small businesses. Mr. Modi tweeted that the department is committed to helping dynamic small and medium businesses.

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Coronavirus | Death rates in the UK increased by 888 to reach 15,464 | Instant News


The British death toll in the coronavirus pandemic recorded another 888 major daily spike to reach 15,464 on Saturday.

Also read: Coronavirus | The UK extended the locking action for at least 3 more weeks

Addressing the Downing Street daily briefing, UK Community Secretary Robert Jenrick said that 460,437 tests for the deadly virus had now been carried out across the country, with 114,217 people tested positive and 17,759 in hospitals – down from 18,711.

“It’s true that the hard work and patience of the British people paid off. Transmission rate decreased.

“But the number of deaths is still sad. This reinforces the need to consider this as a moment to move on and continue to follow these steps, “Jenrick said, when the total number of state officials increased 888 on Saturday to 15,464.

The minister announced a £ 1.6 billion cash increase for local councils in the UK to help them overcome COVID-19 responses.

Also read: Coronavirus | Queen Elizabeth made a speech in the United Kingdom

“Today we provide 1.6 billion new funding to support the council with the pressure they face when they respond to the crisis,” he said.

Mr Jenrick said he would assist adult services, children’s services, the most vulnerable and garbage collection services.

The minister, who also has a direction from the Regional Government, said he asked the council to keep the park open during the current lockup and also reopen graves and graves so people can “find solace” in the graves of their loved ones, or lay flowers.

Asked about the steps taken to review the factors behind a higher proportion of ethnic minorities in mortality, he said: “There seems to be a disproportionate impact on BAME [black, Asian and minority ethnic] the community. For this reason the Chief Health Officer works with British Public Health to better understand the problem. It is the right to conduct thorough research.

Also read: Coronavirus | Britain to evacuate 20,000 residents starting this week

“I am very aware of the challenges and work with various groups so that the BAME community’s voice is heard.”

Earlier this week, the government announced a review of BAME’s higher susceptibility to corona virus.

Referring to the chronic shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) for National Health Service (NHS) staff, the minister said it was very difficult to get supplies but large shipments of PPE will arrive in Britain on Sunday from Turkey – around 84 tons of PPE.

Doctors and nurses at the NHS have expressed repeated concerns about the lack of PPE supplies and raised safety concerns over the latest government guidelines for reusing certain dresses.

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