Tag Archives: mutation

The British variant was delivered 10 times in Kerala from February to March | Instant News


A district study is being conducted in the state every month to identify the circulating variant and its infectivity.

Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan recently said that a variant first detected in Britain and South Africa had been identified in the state. In addition, a ‘dual mutant’ variant, which is widespread in Maharashtra, has also been reported in Kerala.

“Of the total cases now detected, 40% came from this variant, which includes 30% of the British variant, while 7% was a dual mutant strain and 2% was a South African one,” CM said while calling for caution from residents.

The state began conducting surveillance in December 2020 when a new coronavirus variant was identified in Britain. At that time, the number of cases in Kerala was on a downward trend since September and the average number of cases reported each day was around 6,000.

With the start of the second wave of COVID-19 in February, Kerala began sequencing samples to identify variants in the state. “Three new variants have been found in the state from a sample collected before the election. Two of them are variant B.1.67 (dual mutant) and variant B.1.351 (South Africa). This variant was found in samples collected from March 2021 but not found in previously collected samples. B.1.67 is the Indian variant which has been rampant in Maharashtra while B.1.351 is the South African variant, “Vinod Scaria, a scientist at CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR-IGIB), New Delhi, told TNM.

Kerala has tied up with the CSIR-IGIB in November 2020 for genome sequencing to understand the mutations of the novel coronavirus. Experts say it is normal for the coronavirus to mutate.

Sorting the sample by district is still ongoing while the study by state is completed in 2020. The report of the study, which was conducted in conjunction with Kozhikode Medical College, has been submitted to the government but details are not yet published however.

Rapid deployment, from 3% to 30% in one month

According to Vinod, the spread of the British variant increased 10-fold from February to March in Kerala. “The third is the B.1.1.7 (UK) variant, which has been found in large numbers in the state. It had been found in the state in February but only in 3% of the sample. But in March it was found in 30% of the samples collected. This shows how fast the virus is spreading – from February to March the spread increased from 3% to 30%, ”said Vinod.

However, the South African variant is found in very small proportions in Kerala.

Two ways of studying mutations

Mutations are studied in two ways in Kerala; one by sequencing the genome and the second by sequencing the spike protein in the sample. Genome sequencing involves studying the sequence of bases present throughout the organism’s genome. The second method is faster and therefore can be done for more samples. There are 12 centers in Kerala, both under the Kerala and Union administrations, performing genome sequencing and spike protein sequencing. CSIR-IGIB is also trusted with genome sequencing.

Last year the research was carried out in Kozhikode and its surroundings by collecting 200 samples. Currently the study is carried out in all districts by collecting 100 samples from each district. “With this, we can say what variants are spreading in each district. The study by district is more relevant because population dynamics are not the same across all districts in the state. The presence of the British variant is quite high in border districts such as Palakkad, Wayanad and Kasaragod. In addition, it is higher in big cities like Kozhikode and Ernakulam, where a lot of people mingle with each other so the possibility of transmission is high, “said Vinod.

Infectious variant

The two variants that were first detected in the UK and South Africa were contagious and were classified as Variants of Concern (VoC). “Because this variant spreads rapidly, we are seeing more people requiring hospitalization. It could even lead to an increase in the death rate, ”said Vinod, adding that the British variant is one that has been found rampant in Delhi.

“The public must take this as a serious message because the infectivity (transmission from one person to another) is high with this virus,” said Dr. Chandni Radhakrishnan to TNM. Dr Chandni leads research at Kozhikode Medical College.

“Mutations will continue to occur and we may not be able to identify every mutation. The only way to prevent transmission is to be more careful, exercise physical distance, and if possible wear a double mask, “said Vinod.

Double camouflage was widely recommended since the second wave as protection against infection. Double masks use cloth masks over surgical masks, because not everyone can afford N95 masks.

“It’s up to the people to be more careful than the government to put in place strict measures like lockdowns. Besides, there is no point in seeking consolation by saying that the caseload is less in one district because the situation is so dire, “added Dr. Chandni.

Should you cover the double and other FAQs about airborne transmission of COVID-19

Vaccine efficacy against mutated variants

According to Vinod, the COVID-19 vaccine also has properties against mutant variants. The Union Ministry of Health recently stated that Covishield and Covaxin are effective against British variants. While Covishield is less effective against South African variants, research is underway to understand the efficacy of Covaxin against the same variant. CCMB Hyderabad to study whether the COVID-19 vaccine works against the dual mutant variant

CCMB Hyderabad to study whether the COVID-19 vaccine works against the dual mutant variant

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First case of surface of the Brazilian strain of COVID-19 variant in Delaware | Latest from WDEL News | Instant News


Delaware now has its first case of a strain of the COVID-19 variant from Brazil.

The Delaware Public Health Division announced Friday, April 16, 2021, that the state had three cases of the Brazilian P.1 variant, first discovered in the US in January.

This past week, 92 cases of the COVID-19 variant have been identified in the state.






The strain of the COVID-19 variant was discovered in Delaware on April 16, 2021.




In total, 167 adults between the ages of 18 and 99 and 29 people under the age of 18 have contracted the variant virus. Of these, 132 were from New Castle County. Forty-three were from Kent County, and 21 from Sussex County

The most common variants circulating in the state are the British variant B.1.17 with 95 cases, first identified in the state in January, and the New York variant B.1.525 with 81 cases. Delaware has only one case of the South African variant, which was first identified in March.

“Viral mutations are commonplace. Current public health care and approaches are no different, but since this variant may be more contagious, it is even more important that individuals remain vigilant and continue to take the necessary steps to avoid spreading the virus – wear a mask, wash hands. , avoid getting together, “said the Public Health Division.

According to the CDC, the British, Brazilian, South African and California variants appear to be spreading “easier” and “faster” than the other variants, which they fear could cause more cases of COVID-19.

“So far, research shows that the antibodies generated by vaccination with the current official vaccine recognize this variant. This is being investigated more closely and more research is being done,” CDC says on its website on April 2, 2021.

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The UK reported 77 cases of a dual mutant strain first discovered in India | Instant News


A total of 77 cases a a variant of the corona virus that was first detected in India has been recorded in the UK until 14 April, Security reported on Thursday citing the latest update from Public Health England. Of these, 73 are recorded in England and four in Scotland.

“A new variant has been designated as Variant Under Investigation (VUI) by PHE [Public Health England], “The state health agency said in its weekly report, according to the PTI. The variant, first detected in India, includes a number of mutations including E484Q, L452R, and P681R. “

It is the first time Public Health UK reports an Indian variant in the UK. The current strain is labeled “variant under investigation”. If the virus appears more contagious or more resistant to the body’s immune response, it may be referred to as a “variant of concern.” The health agency said it was monitoring the situation closely.

Labeled B. 1,617,that the mutant variant was first detected in India, however, it has now been found in eight countries, with 70% of the samples containing the mutation originating in India. It is called a “double mutant” variant because it has two mutations.

The E484Q mutation has the characteristics of a previously detected variant – E484K – seen in the fast-spreading Brazilian and South African variants, making it highly transmissible. The L452R mutation, on the other hand, helps the virus evade the immune response.

Health experts say the arrival of the Indian variant in the UK is potentially worrying.

“These two escaped mutations working together could be much more problematic than the South African and Brazilian variants which only got one escaped mutation,” Paul Hunter, professor of medicine at the University of East Anglia, said. Security. “It may be even less vaccine controlled than the Brazilian and South African variants.”

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson is expected to travel to India later this month. However, his journey was halted due to an infection here.

India is currently in the midst of a vicious second wave, recording 2,17,353 new cases on Friday, bringing the tally to 1,42,91,917. One of the factors driving the second wave was the emergence of this new, fast-spreading variant of the Indian virus. Has been was found in 61% of the sample installing genome sequencing in Maharashtra, India’s worst-hit state, reinforces suspicions that this surge in currents is being supported by a more transmissible strain.

Also read:

India is playing down the new mutant strain of Covid to avoid panic – but this may backfire

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Scientists discovered a possible new coronavirus mutation in Brazil | Instant News


A woman sits in front of graffiti amidst the spread of COVID-19 on a street in Brasilia, Brazil, March 11, 2021. [Photo/Agencies]

SAO PAULO – A possible new variant of the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has been detected in several regions of Brazil, the Ministry of Science and Technology’s National Laboratory for Scientific Computing (LNCC) said on Friday.

Brazilian scientists discovered a new variant as the country’s health care system nearly collapsed due to an increase in cases caused by the P.1 strain that emerged in the northern Brazilian state of Amazonas in November 2020.

A study carried out in 39 municipalities from five Brazilian states “led to the identification of a possible new variant of SARS-CoV-2 derived from variant B.1.1.33 which has been circulating in Brazil,” the laboratory said Friday in a statement.

This latest variant contains mutations that could “complicate the planning of new strategies for controlling COVID-19,” the laboratory warned.

The results of the study were reported in the GISAID international coronavirus genome database.

“The increasing need for effective genomic surveillance to be able to identify potential viral mutations early is clear, which will help improve current vaccines against COVID-19,” the laboratory said.

Brazil has reported 11,363,380 cases of COVID-19, with 275,105 deaths, since the start of the pandemic.

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Worse problems with the SARS-CoV-2 variant may be occurring | Instant News


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19), continues to spread globally.

With this spread, new variants and strains have emerged, posing a threat to the newly developed and distributed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. efficacy.

Researchers at the Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa, found evidence of significant changes in the selective power acting on immunologically important SARS-CoV-2 genes, such as N and S. This likely coincided with their appearance. of the 501Y lineage.

In the study, published on a pre-print server medRxiv*, the team examined patterns of mutations that appeared in the SARS-CoV-2 genome during the pandemic.

SARS-CoV-2 mutation

Between December 2019 and October 2020, worldwide viral evolution involved new, highly vulnerable host populations. D614G (Asp614-to-Gly) mutation in viruses spike protein accelerate the spread of the virus.

From there, only a few mutations were epidemiologically significant without affecting the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. However, these mutations are characterized by a mutation pattern of slow and selectively neutral random genetic drift.

Since October 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has mutated several times. Currently, three variants are actively spreading – the British variant is called B.1.1.7 with multiple mutations in fall 2020, the South African variant is called B.1.351, and the Brazilian variant is called P.1.

SARS-CoV-2 genome map showing location and amino acid changes encoding of what we consider here to be the signature mutations of the V1, V2 and V3 sequences. Genes represented with light blue blocks encode non-structural proteins and genes in orange encode structural proteins: S encode spike protein, E envelope protein, M matrix protein, and N nucleocapsid protein. Within the S-gene, the receptor-binding domain (RBD) is shown in darker color and the site where the S protein is cleaved into two subunits during priming for receptor binding and cell entry is indicated by a dotted vertical line.

The British variant spreads faster and easier than the other variants. In January 2021, scientists said that the variant may be associated with an increased risk of death compared to other variants of the virus. It has spread to many countries around the world.

Variant B.1.351 is known to be resistant to the effects of vaccines and therapy against COVID-19. Meanwhile, the P.1 variant appeared on travelers from Brazil in early January. This variant contains an additional set of mutations that can affect their ability to be recognized by antibodies.

In the study, variants B.1.17 or 501Y.V1 were referred to as V1, B.1.351 or 501Y.V2 variants were V2, and variants P.1 or 501Y.V3 were referred to as V3.

To date, research has shown that antibodies produced by vaccination with approved vaccines recognize this variant, but further investigations are ongoing.

Amino acid locations encoded by codons evolved under positive selection and / or encoding convergent amino acid changes between lineages mapped to the 3D Spike structure (PDB 7DF4 structure; 47).  Human ACE2 receptors are shown in light blue color.  Signature mutations are not represented unless concluded to be under positive selection.  Site pairs detected coexisting in different lineages are connected by purple lines.

Amino acid locations encoded by codons evolved under positive selection and / or encoding convergent amino acid changes between lineages mapped to the 3D Spike structure (PDB 7DF4 structure; 47). Human ACE2 receptors are shown in light blue color. Signature mutations are not represented unless concluded to be under positive selection. Site pairs detected coexisting in different lineages are connected by purple lines.

Learning

This study aims to determine the evolutionary capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to adapt to increased population immunity and infection control measures such as social distancing and vaccinations.

The researchers examined the mutation patterns that appeared in the SARS-CoV-2 genome during the pandemic.

The team used a series of phylogenetic-based natural selection analysis techniques to examine positive selection patterns in the protein-coding sequences of the three lineages.

The study findings suggest the emergence of the 501Y lineage is consistent with substantial global changes in positive selection signals. This implies a general change in the selective environment in which SARS-CoV-2 thrives.

They also found significant changes in the selective power acting on the SARS-CoV-2 gene. Furthermore, the team revealed that the adaptive evolution of the 501Y lineage unites between lineages. This study highlights the essence of surveillance on how members of the 501Y lineage develop similar stages to ensure their survival and persistence.

The sudden appearance of the 501Y lineage

The team explained that in the first months of the pandemic no mutations had appeared. This is the sluggish pace of virus evolution. The start of the pandemic was like the pinnacle of a virus’ fitness in its ability to infect and transmit between people.

However, since October 2020, the sudden appearance of the 501Y lineage has caused cases to skyrocket around the world. V1, V2, and V3 caused faster virus transmission, which has now reached 192 countries and regions.

“Given the number of infections that occurred in October, all of these individual mutations, and even all pairs of mutations that could potentially interact epistatically, would have emerged independently,” the investigators explain.

To date, the number of cases has reached more than 117 million and 2.59 million deaths. The United States reports the highest number of infections, exceeding 29 million. Other countries whose cases have skyrocketed include India with 11.22 million cases; Brazil 11 million cases, Russia 4.28 million cases, and Britain 4.23 million cases.

* Important Notice

medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer reviewed and, therefore, should not be construed as conclusions, guidelines for health-related clinical / behavioral practice, or are treated as defined information.

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