Tag Archives: Nerve

Basketball: New Zealand Breakers lose Corey Webster to a hand injury | Instant News


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Corey Webster’s shooting prowess will be missed by the NZ Breakers when they open for the NBL 2021 season on January 13. Photos / Photosport

New Zealand Breakers star Corey Webster will miss at least the first two weeks of the Australian National Basketball League season after slicing a nerve in his hand with a knife in his kitchen.

Webster, who has been wracked with chaos in 2020 by the Covid-19 pandemic, will now start the season on the sidelines after breaking a hand in an unsuccessful attempt to cut avocado.

“Corey tried, maybe without success, to prepare dinner for himself and when he was trying to play one on one with the avocado, the avocado hit him and he got a pretty serious cut on the palm of his hand,” Breakers coach Dan Shamir told Newstalk ZB.

Webster, a guard shooting specialist for Breakers, has had surgery for a wound affecting the non-firing hand and will be limited to training for the next month.

“Actually, he needed surgery because one of the nerves in his palm was damaged.

“At first we didn’t know how badly and how long it would take, but yesterday, when he visited the surgeons again, they were very happy that everything was fine and he would be able to play; but it would take another four weeks for him to recover. completely so he would have missed the first [two] week of the season.

“He’s not going to be able to play basketball too much because of the danger of these cuts and stitches having to heal properly. Therefore he won’t be able to bounce the ball or catch or anything like that.

“We will do everything to keep him fit as much as possible and I am just happy that it is his left hand and not his shooting hand and hopefully over time he will come back to himself.”

This latest setback for Webster comes after 2020 which saw his career stalled by a worldwide health crisis. He left the Breakers mid-season to take up a lucrative contract in China’s basketball league, but returned home soon after the coronavirus broke out in Wuhan province.

Unable to join the Breakers late match in the playoffs, he opted to play in Italy – one of Europe’s top basketball leagues – just at a time when the country was becoming the epicenter of the continent’s disease.

However, after just one game for Virtus Roma’s team, the league was postponed and he was once again back on the coast of New Zealand.

For Breakers coach Dan Shamir, this latest setback is one of many trials the club faces ahead of the 2021 NBL season.

“My reaction is that there are so many things that have happened to me for the first time in recent months and this is another one. Even so, it is annoying enough, this is out of court, but these things can happen and I am happy that the timing will not too long.

“I’m sure he will be back soon, healthy and will help us a lot.”

The NBL Breaker campaign is expected to kick off on January 13th with a match against Melbourne United, although doubts remain as Australia battles several Covid-19 outbreaks.

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How COVID-19 affects the nervous system | Instant News


A new paper published in the journal JAMA Neurology in May 2020 discussed the presentation and complications of COVID-19 with respect to the nervous system.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands of cases of severe pneumonia and respiratory disorders, in 188 countries and regions in the world. The causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, is a new coronavirus, with well-recognized lung complications. However, evidence is increasing that the virus also affects other organs, such as the nervous system and heart.

The Coronaviruses: A Glimpse

That corona virus is a group of large spread RNA viruses that infect animals and humans. Human infections are known to be caused by 7 coronaviruses, namely human coronavirus (HCoV) –229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2.

Among these, the last three are known to cause severe human disease. While HCoV is more associated with respiratory manifestations, three of them are known to infect neurons: HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and SARS-CoV-1.

Current research aims to contribute to the knowledge of the SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism, as well as post-infectious neurological complications. This virus infects humans through ACE2 receptors in various tissues, including airway epithelium, kidney cells, small intestine, proper lung tissue, and endothelial cells.

Because endothelium is found in blood vessels throughout the body, this offers a potential route for CoV to be localized in the brain. In addition, a recent report shows that ACE2 is also found in brain neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, especially in areas such as substantia nigra, ventricles, middle temporal gyrus, and olfactory bulb.

Interestingly, ACE2 in neuron tissue is expressed not only on the surface but also in the cytoplasm. This finding could imply that SARS-CoV-2 can infect neuronal and glial cells in all parts of the central nervous system.

How does neuroinvasion occur with SARS-CoV-2?

Current knowledge indicates the possibility of nerve cell virus invasion by several mechanisms. These include the transfer of viruses across synapses of infected cells, entering the brain through the olfactory nerve, infection of endothelial blood vessels, and migration of infected white blood cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

The corona virus has been shown to spread back along the nerves from the edge of the peripheral nerves, across synapses, and thus into the brain, in several small animal studies. This is facilitated by a pathway for endocytosis or exocytosis between motor cortex neurons, and other secretory vesicular pathways between neurons and satellite cells.

Axonal transport occurs rapidly using axonal microtubules, which allow the virus to reach the body of neuron cells with a retrograde version of this mechanism.

The possibility of spreading the olfactory route is marked by the occurrence of isolated anosmia and age. In such cases, the virus can pass through the latticed plate to enter the central nervous system (CNS) of the nose. However, more recent unpublished research shows that olfactory neurons lack ACE2, whereas cells in the olfactory epithelium do so. This could mean that a viral injury to the olfactory epithelium, and not the olfactory neuron, is responsible for anosmia, but further studies will be needed to confirm this.

Cross the BBB

This virus can also pass through the BBB through two separate mechanisms. In the first case, infected vascular endothelial cells can move the virus across blood vessels to neurons. Once there, the virus can start to bud and infect more cells.

The second mechanism is through infected white blood cells that pass through the BBB – a mechanism called Trojan horse, which is famous for its role in HIV. Inflamed BBB allows the entry of immune cells and cytokines, and even, possibly, viral particles into the brain. T-lymphocytes, however, do not allow viruses to replicate even though they can be infected.

Neurological features of COVID-19

From limited data on neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, it is clear that headaches, anosmia, and age are among the most common symptoms. However, other findings include stroke and an abnormal state of consciousness.

While headaches occur in up to one third of confirmed cases, anosmia or age shows a much more varied prevalence. In Italy, about one fifth of cases show this symptom, while almost 90% of patients in Germany have such symptoms.

The researchers said, “Given the reports of anosmia that appear as early symptoms of COVID-19, specific testing for anosmia can offer the potential for early detection of COVID-19 infection.”

Impaired consciousness can occur in up to 37% of patients, due to various mechanisms such as infection and direct brain injury, metabolic-toxic encephalopathy, and demyelinating disease. Encephalitis has not been documented as a result of COVID-19.

Toxic-metabolic encephalopathy can occur due to a number of disorders of metabolic and endocrine function. These include electrolyte and mineral imbalances, kidney disorders, and cytokine storms, hypo or hyperglycemia, and liver dysfunction. Patients who are elderly, ill, or already have symptoms of dementia, or are malnourished, are at higher risk for this condition.

Less common neurological complications include Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is a post-viral acute inflammatory demyelinating disease, and cerebrovascular events, including stroke.

Is COVID-19 Therapy Related to Neurological Manifestations?

Nowadays, many different drugs are used to treat this condition.

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, for example, can cause psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, and the latter can worsen the symptoms of myasthenia gravis. Tocilizumab, an IL-6 blocker, is intended to reduce excessive cytokine release that occurs in severe inflammation. Although admission to CNS is limited, it can sometimes cause headaches and dizziness.

Precautions for COVID-19 Patients with Neurological Conditions

If a patient already has a neurological condition that requires special treatment, they tend to be at higher risk for COVID-19, due to existing lung, heart, or liver conditions, having kidney disease (dialysis), if they are overweight, or at immunosuppressive drugs. Also, it is likely that they may be in nursing homes, where many countries have reported severe outbreaks.

This study concludes: “Doctors must continue to monitor patients closely for neurological diseases. Early detection of neurological deficits can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better treatment algorithms. “

Journal reference:

  • Zubair, A. S. et al. (2020). Neuropathogenesis and Neurological Manifestations of Coronavirus in the Coronavirus Era 2019: Overview. JAMA Neurology. doi: 10.1001 / jamaneurol.2020.2065.

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