Tag Archives: neurology

Science Advisory Board | Instant News


Science Advisory Board<br />

COVID-19 has long-term effects on the biotechnology industry

January 5, 2021 – The COVID-19 pandemic will have far-reaching and lasting effects on the biotechnology industry, according to speakers at a January 5 presentation held ahead of the virtual Biotech Showcase being held on January 11-15. Biotech companies have been swirling around on a large scale pursuing infectious disease research – and not all of them will succeed.
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An allergic reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine should not stop vaccination

January 4, 2021 – The COVID-19 vaccine currently approved for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is safe even among people with food or drug allergies, according to allergists from Massachusetts General Hospital. A review of all relevant information is published on Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice on December 31st.
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Top 10 ScienceBoard stories for 2020

21 December 2020 – For many of us, 2020 didn’t go according to plan. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has drastically changed our daily lives. Right here at ScienceBoard.net, we have provided our readers with timely and evidence-based information regarding COVID-19, as well as many other topics in the biopharmaceutical and life sciences industry.
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The FDA issued the EUA for the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine

18 December 2020 – Just one day after the committee’s favorable recommendation, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine from Moderna. The company’s mRNA-1273 vaccine is now the second COVID-19 vaccine on the US market, after vaccines from Pfizer and BioNTech were administered EUA last week.
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New discoveries could produce broad-spectrum antivirals

18 December 2020 – Scientists have identified key human genes that cells need to consume and destroy viruses. Research results are published in Natural on December 16 and could demonstrate new treatments to target viral infections, including COVID-19.
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The FDA committee voted in favor of the Moderna COVID-19 EUA vaccine

17 December 2020 – Moderna’s COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine candidate, mRNA-1273, received favorable recommendations on December 17 from an advisory committee for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The OK Committee means that mRNA-1273 may receive emergency use authorization (EUA) within a few days.
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The new immunotherapy supports the polio vaccine to treat cancer

17 December 2020 – As if we needed another reason to get vaccinated, researchers have developed technology that uses the polio vaccine to help treat cancer in those who later develop the disease. The technology, developed at Duke University and developed by Istari Oncology, uses the antigen produced by the polio vaccine to trigger the immune system to eat away at targeted cancer cells.
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The genes provide new targets for COVID-19 therapy

15 December 2020 – Genes associated with antiviral immunity and lung inflammation have been linked to severe cases of COVID-19 in a new genome analysis carried out in the UK. The result, published in Natural on December 11, revealed new therapeutic targets for drug reuse and development efforts.
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Global health R&D has stalled as resources shifted to COVID-19

December 14, 2020 – The current coronavirus pandemic has slowed progress in research and development (R&D) on neglected diseases and other long-term global health challenges by disrupting ongoing research and directing resources to the work of COVID-19, according to a new report released on December 11. by the nonprofit Global Health Technologies Coalition.
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The FDA issued the EUA for Pfizer’s vaccine, BioNTech COVID-19

12 December 2020 – The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. This step comes after the FDA’s Vaccines and Biological Products Advisory Committee issued positive recommendations for the vaccine.

Google’s DeepMind is making a quantum leap in solving the problem of protein folding

11 December 2020 – Artificial intelligence has made breakthroughs in protein structure prediction. The results come as part of the 14th Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction, a friendly contest and conference organized by the Protein Structure Prediction Center with sponsorship from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, part of the US National Institutes of Health.
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Science Advisory Board | Instant News


Science Advisory Board<br />

The FDA committee voted in favor of the Moderna COVID-19 EUA vaccine

17 December 2020 – Moderna’s COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine candidate, mRNA-1273, today received favorable recommendations from the advisory committee for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The OK Committee means that mRNA-1273 may receive emergency use authorization (EUA) within a few days.
Discuss

The new immunotherapy supports the polio vaccine to treat cancer

17 December 2020 – As if we needed another reason to get vaccinated, researchers have developed technology that uses the polio vaccine to help treat cancer in those who later develop the disease. The technology, developed at Duke University and developed by Istari Oncology, uses the antigen produced by the polio vaccine to trigger the immune system to eat away at targeted cancer cells.
Discuss

The genes provide new targets for COVID-19 therapy

15 December 2020 – Genes linked to antiviral immunity and lung inflammation have been linked to severe cases of COVID-19 in a new genome analysis carried out in the UK. The result, published in Natural on December 11, revealed new therapeutic targets for drug reuse and development efforts.
Discuss

Global health R&D has stalled as resources shifted to COVID-19

December 14, 2020 – The current coronavirus pandemic has slowed progress in research and development (R&D) on neglected diseases and other long-term global health challenges by disrupting ongoing research and directing resources to the work of COVID-19, according to a new report released on December 11. by the nonprofit Global Health Technologies Coalition.
Discuss

The FDA issued the EUA for Pfizer’s vaccine, BioNTech COVID-19

12 December 2020 – The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. This step comes after the FDA’s Vaccines and Biological Products Advisory Committee issued positive recommendations for the vaccine.

Google’s DeepMind is making a quantum leap in solving the problem of protein folding

11 December 2020 – Artificial intelligence has made breakthroughs in protein structure prediction. The results come as part of the 14th Critical Assessment of Structure Prediction, a friendly contest and conference organized by the Protein Structure Prediction Center with sponsorship from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, part of the US National Institutes of Health.
Discuss

The FDA committee approved the transfer of Pfizer, the BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to EUA

December 10, 2020 – Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate, BNT162b2, passed an important milestone today when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory committee determined that the candidate’s benefits in preventing COVID-19 outweigh the risks. The committee’s advice is likely to lead to the issuance of an emergency use authorization (EUA) for vaccines by the FDA within days.
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The new study found the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies disappeared rapidly

8 December 2020 – Antibodies developed after being infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus disappeared rapidly, according to an analysis published in Immunology Science on December 7th. These findings may suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection may not offer long-term immunity from subsequent reinfection with the virus.
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The new universal flu vaccine targets conserved areas of viral surface proteins

December 7, 2020 – A new universal influenza vaccine has been developed that targets the surface protein stem of the influenza virus rather than the head. This vaccine, which is capable of neutralizing various strains of influenza, was evaluated in a phase I clinical study whose results were published in Natural Medicine on December 7th.
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Regulatory Roundup: The appointment is made before the end of the year

December 7, 2020 – This week’s Regulatory Roundup covers activities from November 30 to December 4 and is filled with breakthroughs, orphans, and rare disease appointments from the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Several cancer, immunotherapy, and vaccine companies also submitted biological licensing applications to advance their candidates.
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How COVID-19 affects the nervous system | Instant News


A new paper published in the journal JAMA Neurology in May 2020 discussed the presentation and complications of COVID-19 with respect to the nervous system.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands of cases of severe pneumonia and respiratory disorders, in 188 countries and regions in the world. The causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, is a new coronavirus, with well-recognized lung complications. However, evidence is increasing that the virus also affects other organs, such as the nervous system and heart.

The Coronaviruses: A Glimpse

That corona virus is a group of large spread RNA viruses that infect animals and humans. Human infections are known to be caused by 7 coronaviruses, namely human coronavirus (HCoV) –229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2.

Among these, the last three are known to cause severe human disease. While HCoV is more associated with respiratory manifestations, three of them are known to infect neurons: HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and SARS-CoV-1.

Current research aims to contribute to the knowledge of the SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism, as well as post-infectious neurological complications. This virus infects humans through ACE2 receptors in various tissues, including airway epithelium, kidney cells, small intestine, proper lung tissue, and endothelial cells.

Because endothelium is found in blood vessels throughout the body, this offers a potential route for CoV to be localized in the brain. In addition, a recent report shows that ACE2 is also found in brain neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, especially in areas such as substantia nigra, ventricles, middle temporal gyrus, and olfactory bulb.

Interestingly, ACE2 in neuron tissue is expressed not only on the surface but also in the cytoplasm. This finding could imply that SARS-CoV-2 can infect neuronal and glial cells in all parts of the central nervous system.

How does neuroinvasion occur with SARS-CoV-2?

Current knowledge indicates the possibility of nerve cell virus invasion by several mechanisms. These include the transfer of viruses across synapses of infected cells, entering the brain through the olfactory nerve, infection of endothelial blood vessels, and migration of infected white blood cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

The corona virus has been shown to spread back along the nerves from the edge of the peripheral nerves, across synapses, and thus into the brain, in several small animal studies. This is facilitated by a pathway for endocytosis or exocytosis between motor cortex neurons, and other secretory vesicular pathways between neurons and satellite cells.

Axonal transport occurs rapidly using axonal microtubules, which allow the virus to reach the body of neuron cells with a retrograde version of this mechanism.

The possibility of spreading the olfactory route is marked by the occurrence of isolated anosmia and age. In such cases, the virus can pass through the latticed plate to enter the central nervous system (CNS) of the nose. However, more recent unpublished research shows that olfactory neurons lack ACE2, whereas cells in the olfactory epithelium do so. This could mean that a viral injury to the olfactory epithelium, and not the olfactory neuron, is responsible for anosmia, but further studies will be needed to confirm this.

Cross the BBB

This virus can also pass through the BBB through two separate mechanisms. In the first case, infected vascular endothelial cells can move the virus across blood vessels to neurons. Once there, the virus can start to bud and infect more cells.

The second mechanism is through infected white blood cells that pass through the BBB – a mechanism called Trojan horse, which is famous for its role in HIV. Inflamed BBB allows the entry of immune cells and cytokines, and even, possibly, viral particles into the brain. T-lymphocytes, however, do not allow viruses to replicate even though they can be infected.

Neurological features of COVID-19

From limited data on neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, it is clear that headaches, anosmia, and age are among the most common symptoms. However, other findings include stroke and an abnormal state of consciousness.

While headaches occur in up to one third of confirmed cases, anosmia or age shows a much more varied prevalence. In Italy, about one fifth of cases show this symptom, while almost 90% of patients in Germany have such symptoms.

The researchers said, “Given the reports of anosmia that appear as early symptoms of COVID-19, specific testing for anosmia can offer the potential for early detection of COVID-19 infection.”

Impaired consciousness can occur in up to 37% of patients, due to various mechanisms such as infection and direct brain injury, metabolic-toxic encephalopathy, and demyelinating disease. Encephalitis has not been documented as a result of COVID-19.

Toxic-metabolic encephalopathy can occur due to a number of disorders of metabolic and endocrine function. These include electrolyte and mineral imbalances, kidney disorders, and cytokine storms, hypo or hyperglycemia, and liver dysfunction. Patients who are elderly, ill, or already have symptoms of dementia, or are malnourished, are at higher risk for this condition.

Less common neurological complications include Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is a post-viral acute inflammatory demyelinating disease, and cerebrovascular events, including stroke.

Is COVID-19 Therapy Related to Neurological Manifestations?

Nowadays, many different drugs are used to treat this condition.

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, for example, can cause psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, and the latter can worsen the symptoms of myasthenia gravis. Tocilizumab, an IL-6 blocker, is intended to reduce excessive cytokine release that occurs in severe inflammation. Although admission to CNS is limited, it can sometimes cause headaches and dizziness.

Precautions for COVID-19 Patients with Neurological Conditions

If a patient already has a neurological condition that requires special treatment, they tend to be at higher risk for COVID-19, due to existing lung, heart, or liver conditions, having kidney disease (dialysis), if they are overweight, or at immunosuppressive drugs. Also, it is likely that they may be in nursing homes, where many countries have reported severe outbreaks.

This study concludes: “Doctors must continue to monitor patients closely for neurological diseases. Early detection of neurological deficits can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better treatment algorithms. “

Journal reference:

  • Zubair, A. S. et al. (2020). Neuropathogenesis and Neurological Manifestations of Coronavirus in the Coronavirus Era 2019: Overview. JAMA Neurology. doi: 10.1001 / jamaneurol.2020.2065.

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Sleep Duration Related to More Asthma Attacks | Instant News


New research shows a different relationship between sleep duration and side effects associated with asthma.

A team, led by Faith S. Luyster, PhD, at the University of Pittsburgh’s School of Nursing, examined the relationship between sleep duration, patient reported outcomes, and health care use in adults with asthma.

At present, asthma contributes to significant morbidity and use of health services for adults in the US. While research shows inadequate and excessive sleep duration as a major contributor to adverse effects on health, there is little known about the impact of sleep duration on health outcomes especially in adults with asthma.

The researchers used 2007-2012 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which included the appointment of self-reported asthma.

They then categorized habitual hours of sleep duration as short (≤5), normal (6-8), and long (≥9) and used multivariate regression analysis to examine the relationship between sleep duration and patient reported outcomes and health care outcomes used.

The researchers found 1,389 adults with asthma, 26% of whom reported sleep duration, 66% of whom reported normal sleep duration, and 8% of them reported long sleep duration.

Some demographic information found is that people who sleep short are more likely to be younger and not white, while people who sleep longer are more likely to be older, women, and smokers.

There is a different relationship between sleep duration and various side effects associated with asthma.

People with short sleep duration experience an increase in asthma attacks (aOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.13-2.21, cough (aOR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.32-2.87), and overnight hospitalization (aOR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.37 -3.36) compared with participants with normal sleep duration.

The researchers also reported poorer quality of life related to life including days with poor physical health, mental health, and inactivity due to poor health (P. <0.05).

On the other hand, those who slept longer had more activity limitations due to wheezing compared to the normal duration sleep group (AOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.13-2.91).

According to a 2017 study, individuals who have trouble sleeping are far more likely than the general population to develop asthma.

Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology examined data for 17,927 patients enrolled in the ongoing Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT) Health Study. Asthma-free participants at the start of the study and all aged between 20-65. Participants were asked at intervals to report problems related to asthma, according to Linn Beate Strand, PhD, a sleep researcher and final author of the study.

Data from this study indicate an association, which shows that patients with symptoms of insomnia are three times more likely to develop asthma over time. The average follow-up with patients in this study was 11 years.

Furthermore, the data shows that the more severe the symptoms of insomnia, the more likely an individual patient will have asthma. Patients who say they “often” have trouble sleeping at night have a 65% higher risk of developing asthma from time to time. Those who reported difficulty sleeping “almost every night” had a 108% higher risk of asthma.

While sleep is associated with the risk of developing asthma, new studies show an association between sleep duration and the side effects associated with asthma.

“Compared to adults with asthma and normal sleep duration, those who have shorter sleep duration experience more frequent asthma attacks, increased use of health services, and poorer health-related quality of life, while those who have long sleep duration experience restrictions more frequent activities, “the authors wrote

Learning, “Relationship of sleep duration with patient reported results and use of health services in US adults with asthma, “Published online on the Internet History of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

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