Tag Archives: Neuroscience

The new “liquid” AI is like the human brain, continuously learning through experience | Instant News


According to the record, artificial intelligence is still almost different from the human brain. At best, artificial intelligence has reached the point where it draws inspiration from the human brain, just like learning and changing with experience. According to reports, a new “fluid” form of artificial intelligence is adapting to multiple situations, which makes it an interesting new achievement for many experts.

(Photo: Photo by Paweł Czerwiński on Unsplash​​)

according to Singular hubResearchers have shown that a new technology called “liquid neural networks” allows machines that learn algorithms to improve their skills even after the initial training period. Experts say that it has a built-in system called “neuroplasticity”, just like the human brain, machines can learn through experience. For example, if AI is used to drive a car, it can learn based on the different experiences it has experienced or even exceeded its initial learning stage.

Liquid neural networks focus on quality rather than size

Although AI is inspired by the human brain, the current human system is still very complex. Therefore, the experts managed to adjust the method to adapt to simpler and smaller models, with results similar to humans. Liquid AI focuses on quality, not the scale of large AI models like OpenAI, Micorosft, and Google.

The study is titled “Flow time constant networkA paper published by researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Austrian Academy of Science and Technology showed that these liquid neuron machine algorithms were inspired by the 302 neurons that make up the Caenorhabditis elegans system.

Supporters of the study believe that it is better to focus on the quality of work provided by AI, rather than the scale of machine learning algorithms. The neural connections in our brain have the same concept. Our brain cells are connected to many other cells. In the case of a neural network, the system will provide the best results according to the situation, but will be hindered by the parameters to feed data where it responds.

read more: The artificial intelligence-driven robot dog feels the owner’s emotions and acts as a supercomputer-how much does it cost!

Will the robots of the future adapt to the new experience?

The newly discovered liquid network allows parameters to be expanded and changed over time based on experience. This makes it more realistic and practical in the real world undergoing various changes. In the future, robots may have the same adaptability characteristics as humans when facing different experiences. In a world where emergencies are unpredictable, adaptability is essential for humanoid robots.

However, according to Next websiteSome critics say that driving larger AI machines is expensive and wasteful. This new study still needs to be tested in different situations before it can be determined whether it is worth the change. And, given that robots can now think critically like humans, it may still have a negative impact. However, researchers believe that this may be a promising cutting-edge AI technology that can mimic the infinite parameters of the human brain.

related articles: South Korean AI faces controversy after belittling its remarks against ethnic minorities and was rejected by Facebook

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Is Switzerland smuggling religion into their constitution? | Instant News


Switzerland has several the most stringent laws in the world for animal care. Goldfish, for example, as social animals, must have friends in their bowls. This concern for animals and even plants dates back to a 1992 referendum on amending the Swiss constitution to protect “human dignity” (Article 119) and the dignity of beings (Article 120).

This amendment has become unpopular in some circles because it hinders the development of reproductive technology and human biotechnology.

An American lawyer, James Toomey, has published “the first English study of the Swiss concept of constitutional dignity as a coherent and coherent concept that holds back biotechnology in humans and other species” in Journal of Law and Bioscience.

He argues that “Since this theory speaks directly to the contentious question of the good life, the adoption of Switzerland as a constitutional principle is analogous to the adoption of a theory of religion in the constitution.”

Such restrictions have very practical implications, as the rapid development of the CRISPR gene-editing technology would inevitably go against Swiss law.

Toomey, however, attacked the Swiss constitutional amendments not because they hindered business and technological development, but on philosophical grounds. “This world view is meaningfully indistinguishable from that of traditional religions. Not one liberal country should try to adopt because a liberal country should not adopt one. “

The argument is genuine: that Switzerland has imposed religious doctrines on its citizens.

Undoubtedly, for many Swiss people nature has a moral value. It is important for its own sake, and they live their lives remembering it. They impose their world view by majority vote into the Swiss constitution. In some ways, this is direct democracy in action, and more power for activists to convince the majority of citizens and cantons. But when democracy clashes with liberalism (and there is little more to the promise of liberal than individual freedom of belief), it is the majority and not the basic principles of liberalism that must be bent. As Steven Pinker put it, ‘[a] a free society weakens the state from imposing a conception of the dignity of its citizens.

Michael Cook is the BioEdge editor

This article is published by Michael Cook and BioEdge under a Creative Commons license. You can republish it or translate it for free with attribution for the following non-commercial purposes this guideline. If you teach at university, we ask your department to make a donation. Commercial media must contact us for permits and fees. Several articles on this site are published under different terms.

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Neurologists on the map touch the gatekeeper of the brain in unprecedented detail | Instant News


Many people with autism experience sensory hypersensitivity, attention deficit, sleep disorders. One area of the brain that were involved in these symptoms of the thalamic reticular nucleus (ryat), which is believed to acts as a gatekeeper for sensory information entering the cortex.

A group of researchers from mit and the broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, is now visible in unprecedented detail TIN, showing that the region contains two different subnets of neurons with different functions. The obtained results have more to offer researchers specific targets for drug development that could facilitate some of the senses, sleep and attention symptoms of autism, says Guoping Feng, one of the leaders of the research team.

The idea is that you can very specifically one group of neurons without affecting the whole brain, and other cognitive functions”.

Guoping Feng, the James and Patricia Poitras Professor of neuroscience at MIT and a member of the Institute of mit McGovern Institute for brain research

Feng; SMA-Fu, Deputy Director of neurobiology in the center of the broad Institute of psychiatric research, Stanley; and Joshua Levin, senior group leader at broad Institute, senior author of the study, which appears today in Nature. Leading the report’s authors, former post-doctoral research fellowship at MIT, Yinqing Li, a former postdoc of the broad Institute Violeta Lopez-Huerta, and a wide researcher of the Institute of Xian Adiconis.

Some populations

When you receive sensory information from the eyes, ears and other sensory organs to our brain, it goes first to the thalamus, which then relays it to the cortex for higher level processing. The disadvantages of these thalamo-cortical circuit may lead to attention deficit, hypersensitivity to noise and other stimuli, and sleep problems.

One of the main ways, which controls the flow of information from the thalamus and cortex TRN, which is responsible for blocking distracting stimuli. In 2016, Feng and MIT associate Professor Michael Halassa, who is also the author of the new Nature the paper found that the loss under the Ptchd1 gene significantly affect the function of the RNN. In boys, the loss of this gene, which is carried on the X chromosome, may lead to attention deficit, hyperactivity, aggression, mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders.

In this study, the researchers found that when the Gene Ptchd1 was knocked out in mice, animals showed many of the same behavioral defects seen in humans. When he was knocked out only in TRN, the mice showed only hyperactivity, attention deficit, sleep disturbances, assuming that the BCH is responsible for these symptoms.

In the new study, the researchers wanted to try to learn more about specific types of neurons found in the BCH, in the hope of finding new methods of treating hyperactivity and attention deficit. Currently, these symptoms are most commonly treated with stimulants, such as ritalin, which have a wide impact on the entire brain.

“Our goal was to find a particular part, to modulate functions of the thalamo-cortical output and link it to neurological development,” says Feng. “We decided to try using single-cell technology to analyze what types of cells are there and what genes are expressed. There are certain genes that are amenable to therapy with drugs that are included as a target?”

To explore this possibility, the researchers sequenced the messenger RNA molecules found in the neurons of the RNN, which reveals the genes that are expressed in these cells. This allowed them to identify several hundred genes that can be used to differentiate the cells into two subpopulations, based on how strongly they Express certain genes.

They found that one of these cell populations is at the core of TIN, and the other forms a very thin layer around the nucleus. These two populations also form connections of various parts of the thalamus, the researchers found. On the basis of these compounds, the researchers suggest that cells mainly involved in transmission of sensory information to the cortex when cells in the outer layer appear to help to coordinate information across different senses, such as sight and hearing.

“Targets amenable to therapy with drugs included”

Now scientists plan to study the different roles that these two populations of neurons can have different neurological symptoms, including attention deficit, hypersensitivity, and sleep disturbance. Using genetic and optogenetic methods, they hope to determine the effects of activation or inhibition of different TIN cell types, or genes that are expressed in those cells.

“This may help us in the future to develop specific tasks, amenable to therapy with preparations that have the potential to modulate different functions,” says Feng. “Thalamo-cortical circuits control many different things such as sensory perception, sleep, attention, and cognition, and it may well be that they can be targeted more specifically.”

This approach can also be useful for treating disorders of attention or sensitivity, even when not caused by defects in the function of TIN, say the researchers.

“Trn-target where if you can improve its function, you may be able to fix the problems caused by violations of thalamo-cortical circuits,” says Feng. “Of course, we are far from development of any kind of treatment, but the potential that we can use single-cell technology to not only understand how the brain organizes itself, but also how brain function can be separated, allowing to identify more specific targets that modulate specific functions.”

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Antidepressant does not improve post-stroke recovery | Instant News


Every year nearly 14 million people worldwide suffer from a stroke, and half of those who survive end up with permanent functional impairments. Animal studies and small human studies have shown that fluoxetine, a SSRI drug, which inhibits the absorption of serotonin in the brain, may contribute to post-stroke recovery of brain. Animal studies have shown that the treatment causes new cells are formed in the damaged area of the brain.

Impact on functional capacity was now questioned in a large randomized study of patients with acute stroke (with Effects research). The researchers also studied adverse reactions to the drug and its effect on depression.

No improvement recovery

“Our study shows that fluoxetine does not improve recovery after stroke,” says Erik Lundströmdoctor , stroke and head researcher effects the researcher Department of clinical neurology. “The number of depression indeed decrease, but the risk of bone fractures increases.”

The study included 1,500 patients from 35 Swedish hospital from October 2014 to June 2019, making it the largest ever randomized controlled study of stroke in Sweden.

Patients were randomly placed in the group that received six months of fluoxetine (20 mg) treatment or placebo, without the participants or researchers knowing who was assigned where. Then, the functional ability was measured using the modified Rankin scale (Mrs), which is the most common scale for assessing post-stroke loss of function.

Three joint research

Effects is collaborating with two other academic studies of treatment with fluoxetine after stroke (concentration and affinity). The collected results from approximately 6,000 patients included in these three studies will be presented throughout the year.

“My advice is to refrain from the use of fluoxetine as a preventive therapy after a stroke,” says Dr. Eric Lundstrom.

The study was funded by grants from the Swedish research Council, Swedish heart and lung Foundation, the Swedish brain Foundation, Swedish medical society, king Gustav V and Queen Victoria’s Foundation of Freemasons and the Swedish stroke Association. The sponsor was the Karolinska Institute (Department of clinical Sciences, Danderyd hospital).

Publication

The safety and efficacy of fluoxetine on functional recovery after acute disorders of cerebral circulation (effects): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study“. Erik lundström, Eva Isaksson, Per Näsman, West Lane, björn Mårtensson, Bo Norrving, håkan wallén, jørgen Borg, Dennis Martin, Mead, Gillian, Graeme Hankey, Jay Hackett, Marie l, Sunnerhagen, Katharina S. the Lancet neurology, online July 21, 2020

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Research finds that specific brain cells trigger sugar consumption and cravings | Instant News


New research has identified specific brain cells that control how much sugar you eat and how hungry you are for sweet foods.

Most people enjoy sweets from time to time. However, unchecked “sweets” can lead to excessive consumption of sugary foods and chronic health problems such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Understanding the biological mechanisms that control sugar intake and preference for sweetness may have important implications for controlling and preventing these health problems.

The new research is led by Dr. Matthew Potthoff, associate professor of neuroscience and pharmacology at Carver University in Iowa, and Dr. Matthew Gillum at Copenhagen University in Denmark. The research focuses on the action of a hormone called fibroblast growth. Factor 21 (FGF21). This hormone is known to play a role in energy balance, weight control and insulin sensitivity.

This is the first study to truly identify where this hormone works in the brain, and provides very cool insights into how to regulate sugar intake. “

Matthew Potthoff, a member of the Eagle Diabetes Brotherhood Research Center at UI and the Iowa Neuroscience Institute

Potthoff and his colleagues previously discovered that FGF21 is made in the liver in response to elevated sugar levels and plays a role in the brain to suppress sugar intake and preference for sweetness.

Based on this discovery, the team now shows for the first time which brain cells respond to FGF21 signaling and how this interaction helps regulate sugar intake and sweetness preferences. The study was published in the journal Cell metabolism, Also revealed how hormones mediate their effects.

Although FGF21 is known to function in the brain, because hormone receptors are expressed at very low levels, it is difficult to “see”, so determining the exact cellular target becomes complicated. Using various techniques, the researchers were able to accurately identify which cells express the FGF21 receptor. By studying these cells, studies have shown that FGF21 targets glutamatergic neurons in the brain to reduce sugar intake and sweet taste preference. The researchers also showed that the effect of FGF21 on specific neurons in the hypothalamus of the peritoneum reduces sugar intake by enhancing the sensitivity of neurons to glucose.

Several drugs based on modified forms of FGF21 have been tested as treatments for obesity and diabetes. The new discovery may cause the new drug to more precisely target the different behaviors controlled by FGF21, which may help control how much sugar a person eats.

Resources:

Journal reference:

Jensen-Cody, so, Wait. (2020) FGF21 signaling to the hypothalamus glutamatergic neurons in the hypothalamus inhibits carbohydrate intake. Cell metabolism. doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.008.

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