Tag Archives: Ocean

Prince Philip’s Death: Fifty years of royal visit to New Zealand | Instant News


He was born in Greece, attended schools in France, Germany and Scotland, trained in England and served in World War II naval theater in the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

And, 10 times with his wife and less often alone, Prince Philip – who died Friday at age 99 – crossed many oceans to reach a collection of islands so distant from British monarchy a few kilometers further and he would find himself on his way back.

The first time, in the summer of 1953-1954, his wife Elizabeth was not only the newly crowned Queen, but also a mother of two.

Preparations, despite being offset by the Tangiwai tragedy – Prince Philip will lay wreaths at a mass funeral for victims of the Christmas Eve disaster – go far beyond digging up pregnant women.

Sheep tinged with Union Jack colors, sails erected to block tired buildings and armies of children in freshly sewn clothes were dispatched to parks, squares and train stations across the country.

The Queen and Prince Philip wave as the Royal chariot leaves Hastings in 1954.Photo / File
The Queen and Prince Philip wave as the Royal chariot leaves Hastings in 1954.Photo / File

Rotorua girl Miriama Searancke, 13, was among them, walking into Arawa Park with thousands of players and spectators in her new red boots with the Crown and the initials ER on the side.

“Everyone comes to perform for the Queen,” Searancke told the Daily Post in 2018.

“It was amazing.”

The 38-day tour takes the couple to 46 major cities and 110 events, with three-quarters of the country thought to have seen a royal surge.

Like all of the couple’s official tours over the past seven decades of marriage, Prince Philip is usually in the background.

When Pat Jamieson joined the crowd chanting “We want the Queen” outside the Revington Hotel in Greymouth, he was sure he actually took the couple to the balcony.
after – in a moment of silence – shouting “I want Duke”.

The 11-year-old had shared a moment with the empress earlier in the day after running half a mile beside their car during a street parade, she later told the NZHistory Government website.

“The Duke of Edinburgh looked across and said, ‘If you run any further, you’ll explode.'”

Masterton met the Royal couple in 1954. Image of Prince Philip at right.  Photos / Files
Masterton met the Royal couple in 1954. Image of Prince Philip at right. Photos / Files

He’s known for his long list of blunt – and often outrageous – comments.

One, drawn up in a 1954 letter to Australian politician Sir Harold Hartley and unearthed last year, paints a different picture of the Duke of Edinburgh’s thinking about New Zealand and its inhabitants than one can get from spontaneous waves or the laying of wreaths.

Māori are treated in New Zealand like “museum objects and pets”, he wrote, and the country is a “perfect welfare state” that is “excessively regulated with little room for initiative”.

However, he was impressed by the exhibits of the Māori culture museum, a special interest after reading The Coming of the Māori by Sir Peter Buck / Te Rangi Hīroa (Ngāti Mutunga).

And her people are “universally charming and overall most caring,” he wrote.

Shearer Godfrey Bowen demonstrated handheld technique for Queen and Prince Philip at Napier during the 1953/54 tour.  Photos / Files
Shearer Godfrey Bowen demonstrated handheld technique for Queen and Prince Philip at Napier during the 1953/54 tour. Photos / Files

He would return two years later – alone – to appear after the Melbourne Olympics.

A decade after their first hugely successful New Zealand tour, the royal couple sailed to the Bay of Islands on Royal Yacht Britannia on Waitangi Day 1963, visiting ports across the country, including Nelson, where the Duke – whose flagship Duke of Edinburgh rewards program helped thousands of children young people rule a precious life
skills – visit the Outward Bound School in Anakiwa.

The Queen and Duke, along with young Prince Charles and Princess Anne, returned seven years later for James Cook’s bicentennial, during which they debuted with the royal “walkabout”.

The royal couple will return to the Commonwealth Games in Christchurch four years later, three years after that to mark the Queen’s Silver Celebration – considered by some to be the closest to the joy of a quarter of a century earlier – and, in 1981, a brief visit following the Heads of the Commonwealth Government conference through the trench .

It may have been brief, but the 1981 tour left the country with captivating memories of Ginette McDonald’s Lyn of Laughter speaking directly to royals at the Royal Variety Performance.

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McDonald’s, characterized by a no-bra outfit, blue jumpsuit, and wide Kiwi accent, won over the Duke when he commented on the royals opening the memorial pool at Laughter.

“The Queen doesn’t laugh at anything,” McDonald later told New Zealand Women’s Weekly.

“Prince Philip who is engaged to me. We met them after that and he mumbled something in my ear. He said he liked the sound of the ‘piddling’ pool.”

The next most notable visit came in 1990, when New Zealand marked 150 years since the signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi and Auckland hosted the Commonwealth Games, with the Queen, Duke and their son Prince Edward in attendance.

The Queen and Prince Philip meet members of the New Zealand Team at their headquarters in Auckland, from left, Ross Blackman, Tom Schnackenberg and Dean Barker.  Photos / Files
The Queen and Prince Philip meet members of the New Zealand Team at their headquarters in Auckland, from left, Ross Blackman, Tom Schnackenberg and Dean Barker. Photos / Files

The couple’s last visit to New Zealand was in 2002, with the only fault being related to the faulty Daimler, who suffered a flat battery.

Daimler, which is only used for visiting heads of state, has a flat battery.

As the royal couple waits on their now stationary plane bound for Australia, airport workers have the embarrassing task of pushing the incapacitated car off course.

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MSC Grandiosa cruise ship passenger party at sea | Instant News


Italy may be under tight lockdown by the coronavirus this Easter with travel restrictions between regions and new quarantines imposed. Yet a few kilometers offshore, guests on the MSC Grandiosa cruise ship rock to Latin music on deck and sip cocktails by the pool.

In one of the lockdown anomalies that have closed hotels and resorts around the world, Grandiosa has crossed the Mediterranean Sea this winter on a seven-night cruise, the flag bearer of the lonely global shipping industry.

After cruise ships became the initial source of a widely publicized coronavirus outbreak, including Australia’s Ruby Princess, Grandiosa has tried to map a path through the pandemic with strict anti-virus protocols approved by Italian authorities seeking to create a “health bubble” on the rise.

Passengers and crew are tested before and during the voyage. Mask mandates, temperature checks, contact tracing wristbands and frequent ship cleanings are all designed to prevent outbreaks. Passengers from outside Italy must arrive with a negative COVID-19 test taken within 48 hours of their departure and only residents of the European Schengen countries plus Romania, Croatia and Bulgaria are allowed to book under a COVID-19 insurance policy.

On Wednesday, Grandiosa left the Italian port of Civitavecchia for a week-long Easter voyage, with 2000 out of a capacity of 6000 passengers and planned to stop at Naples and Valletta, Malta, before returning to his home port in Genoa.

Passengers welcome the normal appearance brought by the freedom to eat in a restaurant or sit by the pool without a mask, even if the virus is still a concern.

“After a year of restrictive measures, we thought we could rest for a week and relax,” said Stefania Battistoni, a 39-year-old teacher and single mother who spent the night from Bolzano, in northern Italy, with her two sons and mother to board the cruise ship.

The pandemic has reduced the number of global cruise ship passengers from a record 30 million in 2019 to more than 350,000 since July 2020, according to Cruise Lines International, the world’s largest shipping industry association representing 95% of ocean shipping capacity. Currently, less than 20 vessels are in operation globally, a fraction of the CLIA member fleet of 270 vessels.

The United States could be one of the last yacht markets to reopen, perhaps not until fall, and not until 2022 in Alaska. Two Royal Caribbean cruise lines that usually sail out of Miami chose to launch a voyage in June from the Caribbean, where the government is eager to revive their tourism-based economy despite activists concerned about the health and environmental impacts.

On the MSC ship, extra cabins are set aside to isolate suspected cases of the virus. Because of the contact tracing bracelet, if a passenger tests positive, medics can identify anyone they have come in contact with. Once the situation is clear, anyone who is positive is transferred to the beach.

According to an independent consulting firm, Bermello Ajamii & Partners, only 23 cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed on board since the industry started a temporary relaunch last summer, with a passenger infection rate of 0.006 percent.

But critics of the cruise ship industry said the risks were not worth it and added that cruise lines should take the pandemic’s waiting time to tackle the industry’s longstanding environmental and labor problems.

“All large cruise ships burn huge volumes of the dirtiest and cheapest fuel available,” said Jim Ace of environmental group Stand Earth. “Cruise lines could use the COVID-19 shutdown to counter their impact on public health and the environment. Instead, they canceled some of their oldest ships and raised money to stay alive.”

However, on board, passengers enjoy the opportunity to enjoy largely closed activities in Italy and much of Europe during the year: theater, dining in restaurants, duty-free shopping and live music in bars.

The rest of Italy will return to full lockdown over the Easter weekend, with shops closed and restaurants and bars open to take-home just to try to minimize the holiday outbreak. In addition, the Italian government imposed a five-day quarantine on people entering from other EU countries in a bid to block the Easter holiday.

“Say after all this time of restriction and closure, this is a choice made for our mental health,” said Federico Marzocchi, who joined the cruise with his wife and 10-year-old son, Matteo.

The European shipping industry is looking to expand its reopening this spring.

Cruises circulate on the Spanish Canary islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa, including the company AIDA which caters to German tourists. Costa Cruises, which with MSC is one of Europe’s largest cruise lines, will resume cruises on May 1, on a special Italian seven-night cruise. Costa plans to begin sailing the western Mediterranean from mid-June.

Britain opened cruises in May, with MSC and Viking launching cruises from the British Isles, among several companies offering ocean staycation cruises aimed at capturing one of the most important cruise ship markets. The cruise ship industry hopes Greece will open in mid-May, but the country has not announced when it will reopen tourism.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a “framework” for continuing cruise ships in the US, but industry says the health agency has not made it clear that companies need to operate their ships. After the CDC provided the technical requirements, industry officials said it would take about 90 days for the ship to prepare for sailing.

The cruise ship company complained that last fall’s CDC framework was outdated and had to be scrapped. They say it was issued before a vaccine was available and before the resumption of cruise ships in Europe, which they say have carried thousands of passengers safely under the new COVID-19 protocol. And they complain that sailing is the only part of the US economy that remains covered by the pandemic.

The International Cruise Ships Association trading group is lobbying to begin cruises in the US in early July, noting that loyal cruise customers are going elsewhere.

“Explorers like to sail, and they will go where the ships are sailing,” said Laziza Lambert, a spokesman for the trade group.

However, environmentalists who refuse to restart early say the deadline imposed by the pandemic provides a window into tackling industry problems.

“Big cruise ships pollute our air, our water and contribute to climate change. They are toxic to the port community. And they spread COVID. They exploit workers and endanger passengers,” Ace said. “Why are the big cruise ships allowed to return before they tackle this problem?”

AP

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VIDEO: Angry octopus attacks beachgoers in Australia | Headlines | Instant News


(Reuters / CBS Newspath) – Swimming while on holiday on the coast of Western Australia has resulted in an octopus that is painfully “whipped” – and a video of the encounter has gone viral.

Geologist and author Lance Karlson was about to swim near the resort where he and his family were staying at Geographe Bay, on Australia’s southwest coast, when he saw what he thought was a stingray tail emerging from the water and crashing into a seagull. .

After walking closer to his 2-year-old daughter, he discovered it was an octopus, and took the video, which shows the animal in the shallow water suddenly attacking Karlson with its tentacles.

“The octopus attacked us, which was very surprising,” Karlson said in emailed comments to Reuters.

After setting up a sun protection tent for his family on the beach, Karlston put on his goggles and went out into the water alone to explore the collection of crab shells, which he said were left behind by dead sea creatures. As he swam, he felt another whip on his arm – followed by an even stronger sting to his neck and upper back.

“My glasses became foggy, the water suddenly became cloudy and I remember being shocked and confused,” added Karlson in the email.

Karlson said he ran back to shore and saw traces of tentacles raised on his arms, neck and upper back. Since she didn’t have vinegar, her preferred treatment for sea animal stings, she poured cola on the affected area, which worked well to stop the sting.

Footage Karlson posted with the comment: “The grumpiest octopus in Geographe Bay!” was shared widely, but he said he was worried but there was no hostility towards the animal.

Copyright 2021 KMOV (Meredith Corporation). All rights reserved

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Islands, rocks and tuna: Pacific nations are drawing new battle lines against rising sea levels | Instant News


Small island nations in the Pacific are opening a new front in the fight against rising seas to secure rights to a sea area larger than the moon that is home to billions of dollars in fish stocks.

Countries from Kiribati to Tuvalu map their remote islands, scattered in the oceans, in an attempt to claim a permanent exclusive economic zone (EEZ), which stretches 200 nautical miles (370 km) offshore, regardless of future sea level rise. front.

As global warming pushes waters higher, Pacific nations fear their islands could be flooded, shrinking their EEZ and fishing and mining rights within their boundaries – so they’re trying to lock up the current zone.

“There is a sense of urgency,” said Jens Kruger, deputy director of maritime and maritime programs at the Pacific Community based in Fiji, a state-run development organization.

“Sea level rise and climate change are threats that can destroy our islands.”

Once islands and the EEZ are mapped according to UN rules, Pacific nations believe they cannot “be challenged or reduced as a result of rising sea levels and climate change,” Kruger said.

Under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which was resolved before sea level rise was recognized as a global problem, states have rights in the EEZ 200 nautical miles extending from their coast.

But higher seas, driven by melting ice in Antarctica and Greenland as the planet’s climate warms, could force people to leave lowland islands.

That would lower them to “stones” in UN terminology, with UNCLOS stipulating that “stones which cannot support human habitation or their own economic life” do not qualify for the EEZ.

Seas could rise up to about 1 meter (3.28 feet) this century, depending on how far global temperatures warm, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warned.

Pacific nations are concerned that storm surges, floods, coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion are destroying their lands, destroying homes and farms among other assets.

In addition, they have vital economic interests far offshore, particularly the sale of licenses for tuna fishing fleets from countries such as Japan, South Korea, and the United States.

Clive Schofield, head of research for the Global Ocean Institute at the World Maritime University in Sweden, said the EEZ “is very important for small island nations and large oceans in the Pacific.”

“I think there is growing support for the idea that states that contribute the least to climate change should not be punished first,” he said.

“We are talking about rights to marine resources that are fundamental to their future development.”

The Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission said the region’s tuna catch of 2.9 million tonnes in 2019 was valued at $ 5.8 billion and accounted for 55% of the global total.

The fear is that if the islands disappear, foreign fishing vessels can take stock of tuna, arguing that the waters are no longer in a country’s EEZ but part of the high seas, open to all.

Ten Pacific island nations, including Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and Tuvalu, have about 2 million people living on 62,000 square kilometers of land, roughly the size of the US state of Florida, according to UN data.

But their combined EEZ amounts to 40 million sq km, which is larger than the lunar surface at 38 million sq km, or the entire continent of Africa at 30 million sq km.

Most jurists reject the idea of ​​renegotiating UNCLOS, which is in the works for decades and has not yet been formally ratified by the United States.

“Changing UNCLOS will be a nightmare,” said Elaine Baker, a professor at the University of Sydney and director of the Institute for Marine Studies.

Countries quickly claimed extra land, for example after an offshore volcanic eruption created an island, but he cannot think of any examples of countries giving up maritime zones when the islands disappeared.

“People want to celebrate the emergence of land but not so much land is lost,” said Baker, who also works for the Norway-based environmental communications group GRID-Arendal.

The Pacific community says Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Niue, Samoa, Tuvalu, Australia and others have changed, or are in the process of changing, laws that allow them to use geographic coordinates to determine their EEZs, not traditional nautical maps.

David Freestone, a professor at George Washington University Law School, said Pacific states may face problems if they officially fix their EEZs but fail in future to update charts for navigation. Outdated graphics can be misleading for ships.

“Other countries with broader maritime interests, such as the United States, say it is not safe if (Pacific nations) do not update their charts – this is a maritime risk,” he said.

Pacific island governments have agreed to mutually recognize existing maritime boundaries – but that may not be enough.

“It’s not reciprocal recognition they want, it’s recognition from other people,” Freestone said.

If the islands disappear, “Japan and China can say ‘this is no longer an exclusive economic zone’,” and try to fish or mine in the region, he added.

The International Legal Association, which groups scholars around the world, has supported the vulnerable islands, saying in a 2018 resolution that any maritime zone defined under UNCLOS “should not be required to be recalculated if changes in sea level affect the geographic realities of the coastline.”

The Federated States of Micronesia, for example, have sent hundreds of pages to the United Nations detailing the extent of beyond its EEZ, which could make it easier to enforce the zone in any disputes with foreign fleets.

The submission lists tens of thousands of coordinates in the Pacific Ocean, such as 3 ° 19’49.99 ″ North 149 ° 04’07.84 ″ East.

Micronesia wrote in a 2020 letter to the United Nations that it “intends to defend this maritime zone … regardless of sea level rise caused by climate change”.

Tuvaluan Foreign Minister Simon Kofe, meanwhile, said at a conference last September that his country insisted, in diplomatic relations with other countries, that it recognized “the statehood of a nation as permanent and existing maritime boundaries as established, regardless of the impact of the sea. level. “

Small Pacific island nations may be pioneering work to secure maritime borders, but rising seas could change coasts from Bangladesh to Miami. About 680 million people live within 10 meters of sea level, according to the IPCC.

“This problem is not just for small island developing States, it is a global coastal community problem,” said Schofield of the Global Ocean Institute.

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Why Some Geologists Say Charles Darwin’s Theory of the Formation of Coral Atolls Is Wrong | Science | Instant News


During HMS Beagle’s famous voyage, which circled the world from 1831 to 1836, the naturalist Charles Darwin thought not only about evolution. He also worked with navigators to map the coral reefs the Beagle encountered in the South Pacific and Indian oceans. Along the way, Darwin hatched new ideas about reef formation – including the glittering circles of coral islands known as atolls.

Once upon a time, Darwin suggested, there must be a volcano rising from the bottom of the sea. Corals grow in circles around them, as tiny marine organisms coalesce into a reef that surrounds the flanks of the volcano. And then, at some point, the volcano erodes, sinks under the waves and leaves a ring of atolls behind.

In the earlier theory of atoll formation, developed by Charles Darwin, corals formed in rings around volcanic islands. When a volcano sinks below the surface, it leaves behind a circular atoll.

(Bryan Satalino)

Now, two marine geologists say this is not true. And they have a mission to get the Darwin model out of textbooks. “It’s a great model when you think about the little data he has,” said André Droxler, a geologist who recently retired from Rice University in Houston, Texas. “But that’s not really the case.”

Instead, he said, atolls were formed thanks to sea levels that fluctuated cyclically over hundreds of thousands of years. When the ocean falls, exposing piles of pre-existing carbonate rocks, rainwater dissolves the center of the rock and leaves a depression. As the seas rise, corals form a ring around the depression, forming atolls. No volcano required.

Droxler and Stéphan Jorry, a geologist at the IFREMER marine laboratory in Plouzané, France, explain their theory in the year 2021 Annual Review of Marine Science.

Their work builds on decades of study of how coral reefs are built. It is important not only to reveal the basic geology of how the atolls formed, but also to illuminate the future for the inhabitants of Earth’s hundreds of atoll islands as sea levels rise and threaten to submerge their lowland homes.

The New Theory of Atoll Formation

In a more recent theory of atoll formation, subsidence of sea level exposes the top of the flat edge of the carbonate rock. Rainwater floods and dissolves some of the carbonate, forming a depression over the open bank. When sea levels rise again, fresh corals accumulate on top of the circular edge that rises from the basin, forming an atoll.

(Bryan Satalino)

Drilling to Maldives

One of Droxler and Jorry’s favorite places to study coral reefs is the Maldives, a series of long double atolls that decorate the Indian Ocean like pearl necklaces. “It’s kind of like the Mecca of the atoll,” said Droxler.

That’s why scientists are using the Maldives to perfect their theory of atoll formation. Over the years, companies such as Royal Dutch Shell have drilled several islands and the surrounding seabed in search of oil and gas. There have also been a number of research trips, including two ocean drilling expeditions and sonar-ray surveys that revealed the topography of the seafloor around the island capital of Malé, including ancient coral terraces that were once seen but increasingly The last ice age is coming to an end.

All this data helps Droxler and Jorry gather a detailed picture of how the Maldives came about. It all starts with flat rock piles made of carbonate minerals such as limestone. Many such edges formed in many parts of the tropical oceans between about 5 million and 2.5 million years ago, when Earth’s climate was relatively warm and sea levels changed little. In this stable environment, the skeletons of dead sea creatures drift to the ocean floor and accumulate slowly and steadily into massive carbonate rock formations.

These underwater shores serve as the foundation on which the growth of atolls began about half a million years ago. It’s all thanks to cyclical changes at sea level, say Droxler and Jorry.

In recent geological times, approximately every 100,000 years the planet fell into an ice age chill (due to the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun). Massive ice sheets formed and spread across continents, locking up most of Earth’s water and causing global sea levels to plummet. Then, when Earth’s orbit caused it to once again receive more radiation from the sun, the planet warmed, the ice sheet melted and sea levels rose. “You get this yo-yo change in sea level,” says Droxler.

Over the last 500,000 years, dramatic changes in sea level – up to 135 meters (440 feet) – created numerous atolls, say Droxler and Jorry. As a first step, imagine that the sea level drops to reveal the top of a carbonate rock cluster with a flat top. Rain fell from the sky, pooled on the carbonates. Since rainwater is usually slightly acidic, it begins to dissolve rock. This process is known as karstification, and it is the same in places like Kentucky when rainwater seeps through underground limestone and dissolves it, forming dramatic caves such as Mammoth’s Cave.

The rise and fall of sea level

Global sea levels have risen and fallen throughout geological history, driven by global climate change. Over the past half a million years, sea levels have fluctuated even more dramatically. Changes in Earth’s orbit cooled the planet, locking up most of its water in near polar ice caps and causing global sea levels to fall. In time, most of the ice melts, causing sea levels to rise again. This change in sea level may have led to the formation of many atolls.

(Adapted from AW Droxler and SJ Jorry / AR Marine Science 2021 via Knowable Magazine)

Above open sea rocks, rainwater usually pools in the middle. So that’s where most of the carbonate rock dissolves, leaving a little depression. When sea levels rose again, most corals began to grow along the high ring-shaped edges around the depression, where they were closest to sea level and had plenty of light and nutrients to grow.

Over thousands to hundreds of thousands of years, as sea levels fall and rise and fall again, circular atolls gradually form around a central depression, or lagoon. Darwin did not realize that this process formed atolls because geologists of his time did not understand the ice ages and the usual fluctuations in sea level, Droxler said.

The start of the nuclear age also provides some clues about the need to overturn the Darwin atoll idea, Droxler added. Starting in the 1940s, research teams drilled into Pacific atolls such as Bikini and Eniwetok, in the Marshall Islands, to better understand their structure before detonating them with an atomic bomb. The expedition found volcanic rock beneath the carbonate atoll – but too deep to support Darwin’s idea of ​​a volcano sinking and leaving the atoll. (Today, residents of Bikini and Eniwetok are still alive with the radioactivity left behind by the US nuclear tests, and the deteriorating structure of the coral reef that was destroyed by the bomb.)

Atolls may not ‘keep up’ with climate change

Darwin’s idea of ​​the atoll may not be completely wrong. At least some of the reefs on Tahiti may have formed in the way he envisioned, a research team said argued in a 2014 paper. “But we’ve also long known that there are other ways to develop atolls,” said Anna Weiss, a paleontologist at Midwestern State University in Wichita Falls, Texas, who studies ancient coral reefs. “It’s a mistake to over-generalize things in geoscience.” Some reefs in Belize, for example, emerge from above a chunk of the continental crust driven by tectonic forces closer to sea level. And one study of certain atolls in the Maldives argue that it is shaped more by waves crashing into it than by karstification.

Understanding how the atolls formed is important for helping lowland islanders adapt to sea level rise caused by climate change, Weiss said. “If we operate with the assumption that all atolls are the same, we lose important nuances of why reefs may or may not be able to ‘keep up’ with climate change,” he said. The Maldives, the world’s flatest country, faces an existential threat as sea levels rise on its islands. About half a million people live on this vast archipelago, where no point is higher than three meters (about 10 feet) above sea level.

In the absence of humans, atolls could grow at a much faster rate than sea level rise. But people have degraded natural atolls by incorporating pollution and waste, changing the water level and adding concrete and asphalt covering the coral underneath. The Maldives faces a future of flooding, water contamination and erosion that threatens its tourism and fishing industries.

For hundreds of thousands of years, the wealth of these islands was governed by planetary cycles. But now the human influence has grown and jeopardizes their existence. It was an evolution that Darwin could not have predicted.

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Knowable Magazine is an independent journalistic effort from the Annual Review.

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