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Social distancing is a useful tool in preventing the further spread COVID-19 | Instant News


According to researchers from the University of Texas cancer center M. D. Anderson, implementation of social distancing policy is consistent with a significant reduction in the transmission of SARS-cov-2 virus, and reduces the overall mobility as in the United States and around the world, providing evidence that social distancing is a useful tool in preventing the further spread COVID-19.

The study, published today in BIOCHEMISTRYbelieves that social distancing policy adopted at the national level in 46 countries prevented was estimated to be 1.57 million cases COVID-19 over a two week period, which represents a decrease by 65% in new cases. The researchers suggest that these findings highlight the significant benefits that can be achieved by people practicing social distancing.

“At them. M. D. Anderson, we are focused on caring for patients with cancer, and we know that our patients are highly vulnerable to COVID-19,” said senior author Raghu Kalluri, M. D., Professor and chair, Department of cancer biology.

“So we felt it was important to conduct an unbiased analysis of the security measures that could benefit our patients and society as a whole. From our data analysis, it became clear that practicing social distancing can have a huge impact on the speed of transmission.”

The impact of the policy of social distancing in the United States

To determine the effectiveness of policies for social distancing in the United States, the researchers analyzed COVID-19 spread in each of the 50 States. Recognizing that many factors contribute to the spread of the disease, they analyzed new cases before and after States imposed the rules of social distancing.

Three States not to implement such a policy, providing an opportunity for comparison. Data were analyzed over the same time periods compared to other States.

We found that the state experienced a significant decrease in the rate of transmission after the implementation of social distancing policies, compared to States without such policies. In fact, two of the smallest reduction in proliferation was seen in States with no policies social distancing”.

Daniel Mcgrail, PhD, the study’s lead author and researcher at the Department of systems biology at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson cancer center

47 States with the policy of social distancing also seen a greater decrease in the average mobility of the community against the state without a policy that identifies patterns in the movement of people from the residential, manufacturing, retailing and other areas. States with no policies social distancing also demonstrated a decrease in mobility, although these changes were significantly less than the state’s policy of distancing.

The impact of the policy of social distancing worldwide

Understanding that the US analysis was limited to a small number of States with no policies social distancing, scholars have analyzed the consequences of the policy of social distancing throughout the world. They were able to obtain sufficient data for 46 countries with national policies for social distancing, 74 countries without such a policy, and 14 regional policy.

After such analysis of the data suggests that a much larger reduction of transmission was seen in the countries after the implementation of the national policy of social distancing in comparison with those with regional policy or agreed upon terms, in the countries without a policy. No significant differences were observed between countries, regional policy and without a policy of social distancing.

Countries with policies social distancing significantly reduced the mobility of the community towards the peoples, not the politicians, and those with national policies saw more decreases than the country’s regional policy. There is a strong correlation between the decline in mobility and reduction of virus transmission, stressing the importance of people practicing social distancing to effectively prevent transmission of the virus.

“This is a clear indication that the measures of social distancing can collectively have a huge impact on reducing the spread of SARS-cov-2, and we encourage people to practice social distancing, to help control the spread of infections,” said Kalluri. “We believe that these data will provide useful information for public health officials and politicians when considering further measures to reduce the spread COVID-19 in their communities.”

The authors acknowledge the study is the reliance on direct COVID-19 testing, which may underestimate Prevalence. In addition, the researchers drew attention to the dispersion of prices following the implementation of the policy of social distancing as an internal control for the numerous additional factors that can contribute to the spread price.

For analysis, the daily numbers of cases and population data were collected from COVID-19 data warehouse Center for systems science and engineering at Johns Hopkins University. Information on policies social distancing, obtained from the aura to the vision of a global COVID-19 lock and tracker mobility data were obtained from reports mobility Google. All data for the study were collected on June 5, 2020.

Source:

Journal reference:

Mcgrail, D. J., etc. (2020) adoption of a national social distancing policy is consistent with a sharp decrease COVID19 the spread of infection. BIOCHEMISTRY. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236619.

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Health service providers urge to stop using hydroxycholoroquine for COVID-19 | Instant News


The sacred oaths taken by doctors during graduation from medical school to “First do no harm,” the first words of the Hippocratic Oath, provide a powerful impetus for comments that have just been published in The American Journal of Medicine.

Researchers from Florida Atlantic University’s Schmidt School of Medicine and collaborators from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health urge all health care providers to prioritize compassion with reliable evidence about efficacy and security.

They recommend a moratorium on prescription chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, with or without azithromycin, to treat or prevent COVID-19, with the exception of getting the evidence needed in randomized trials and loving use.

Despite the fact, or maybe partly due to the fact that there are no therapeutic or preventative measures for the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, which accounts for less than 5 percent of the world’s population and about 30 percent of cases and deaths, prescription drugs are widespread nine times bigger than in the last few years.

This widespread use leads to national deficiencies in patients with lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, for whom hydroxychloroquine has been an approved indication for decades. These patients cannot fill their prescriptions.

On March 28, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an emergency use permit for chloroquine and chloroquine hydroxy for the treatment of COVID-19. However, on April 24, the FDA issued a drug safety communication warning regarding chloroquine hydroxy disorders and heart rhythm disorders that can cause sudden cardiac death.

If this drug needs to be prescribed for patients with COVID-19, initial evaluation and serial monitoring are an absolute necessity. “

Richard D. Shih, M.D, Study First Author and Professor of Emergency Medicine, Florida Atlantic University

Shih is also a division director and founding program director for emergency medicine residency programs at FAU’s Schmidt College of Medicine.

Furthermore, the authors suggest that the convincing safety profile of chloroquine may be more real than it really is.

Data on safety comes from decades of prescription by healthcare providers, especially for their patients with lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, both of which have a greater prevalence in young and middle-aged women, whose risk of fatal cardiac outcomes due to hydroxychloroquine is very convincing. low.

In contrast, the risk of hydroxychloroquine for patients with COVID-19 is significantly higher because of fatal cardiovascular complications due to these drugs is much higher in older patients and those who have heart disease or risk factors, both of which are mostly male .

In basic research, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are structurally related and have similar mechanisms to inhibit the virus that causes COVID-19. Despite their structural similarities, in vitro, hydroxychloroquine seems to be more effective.

Additionally, when used for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, hydroxychloroquine has fewer side effects, less drug interactions and is less toxic in overdoses.

The authors note that the evidence currently available is limited to eight published studies, five on hydroxychloroquine alone; two in chloroquine hydroxy plus azithromycin; and one in both in combination or alone.

Of these only three were randomized trials enrolling 225, 62, and 30 patients – all of them too small to provide reliable evidence. All three tested hydroxychloroquine alone versus the standard of care in China.

One showed no significant difference in cleansing the virus at 28 days, second, there was no difference in cleansing the virus at seven days, and third, some improvements in fever, coughing and chest computed with tomographic findings.

“With regard to hypothesis testing, only large-scale randomized trials with sufficient size, dosage and duration can reliably detect the most reasonable small to moderate effects, which can have enormous clinical and public health impacts,” said Charles H. Hennekens, MD, Dr.PH, senior writer, first professor Sir Richard Doll and senior academic advisor at FAU’s Schmidt College of Medicine.

Source:

Journal reference:

Shin, R D., et al. (2020) Hydroxychloroquine for Coronavirus: Urgent Need for Prescription Moratorium. American Journal of Medicine. doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.05.005.

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Researchers are developing promising new treatments for HIV | Instant News


A new tool to prevent HIV infection was developed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center that can allow people with or at risk of contracting the virus to take medication once a year.

Progress has the potential to eliminate complications arising from missing doses of life-saving drugs, according to research published today in Natural ingredients, leading peer-reviewed biomedical research journal.

The research team led by Benson Edagwa, Ph.D., assistant professor, UNMC’s Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, and Howard Gendelman, MD, department chair and professor, developed the first potential antiretroviral (ARV) in the world for the prevention of HIV infection by changing drugs ARV for a month becomes therapy once a year.

This pharmaceutical development has the potential to not only treat but also prevent transmission of the virus. This can certainly be a therapeutic milestone. “

Howard Gendelman, M.D., Chair and Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, UNMC

Gendelman has designed pharmacological testing.

This study explains what can function as a mimetic vaccine to protect the body against HIV infection for a long period of time.

“While viral vaccines and long-term modified ARVs have very different modes of action, they can serve to protect against infection,” Dr. Gendelman.

Nowadays, people with HIV must take medication every day to control the disease. If proven to be safe and effective in clinical studies, UNMC treatment will enable people with HIV to receive drugs that are injected once a year.

Innovations currently in development can prevent transmission of HIV to individuals who are vulnerable to infection. Although existing ARV regimens allow people with HIV to live with minimal health complications and prevent HIV transmission to sexual partners, the risk of losing treatment every day is a major health care problem. Daily lost doses of ART can cause the virus to soar and cause associated comorbidities.

Drs. Edagwa and Gendelman praised the team of great scientists in the department for working on the project, including instructor Aditya Bade, Ph.D., and graduate student Tanmay Kulkarni.

The scientists created a drug that works for a year from the parent drug cabotegravir (CAB). CAB is a potent HIV-1 drug that prevents viruses from entering their genetic material into human cells. By chemically converting CAB into nanocrystals and allowing the body’s own enzymes to slowly convert the modified drug into an active form, the drug can be slowly released from tissue stores.

“This happened for a long period of time, and in laboratory and animal testing, up to one year,” said Dr. Edagwa, who designed and produced the necessary modifications from the new prodrug. Prodrug is a classification of pharmaceutical products in which inert compounds are converted into active forms by the body.

The UNMC team developed an ARV treatment by modifying the molecular structure of the prodrug produced and engineered in a laboratory on the UNMC campus and tested in rats and nonhuman primates.

Human testing has not yet begun, but the development needed to achieve this goal is ongoing with the help of scientists from the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI).

Paul L. Domanico, Tai-Yuen Yue and Gary Moore from CHAI are co-authors at Natural Ingredients the paper and is actively involved with UNMC scientists to facilitate the transition from animal to human testing.

Current active research on drug properties, administration and toxicity potential is now underway and is needed before the mimetic vaccine can obtain approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to finally enter the market. To date, no adverse side effects have been demonstrated in animal testing models.

CAB was originally developed by ViiV Healthcare, a subsidiary of the GlaxoSmithKline pharmaceutical company that specializes in developing therapies for HIV infection. The nanocrystal prodrug approach was discovered by Drs. Edagwa and Gendelman upgraded the previous drug version.

“The partnership and collaboration will take what we do at the Nebraska Nanomedicine Production Plant (NNPP) and develop drugs for potential use by HIV patients and those who are vulnerable to infection,” said Dr. Gendelman, who also serves as interim director of NNPP, a resource that provides support for product research, development and manufacturing of nanoformulation drugs.

Drug reformulation is an important way to advance disease-based treatment that ranges from HIV to other viral outbreaks, potentially including COVID-19, Dr. Gendelman.

Source:

Journal reference:

Kulkarni, T. A., et al. (2020) An old release of nanoformulated cabotegravir, prodrug. Natural Ingredients. doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0674-z.

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