Tag Archives: psychiatry

Fighting with Food | Ethos | Instant News







“My journal has become an outlet for me. It doesn’t talk back and there is so much self-reflection going on while writing, ”said Maddy Niese. “I can hear my healthy voice better when I write a journal, I feel that I can better differentiate between my ED mind and my soul …. I record good times when I want to remember the joys of recovery. I also recorded the times when I struggled and it was very cathartic. “



Content Advisor: This article provides a detailed description of eating disorders and other mental health issues.

It was a sunny June day when 19-year-old Parker Rosay-Miller had a familiar feeling of dizziness. As he got up to get out of his car, a wave of dizziness that felt like static TV rolled over him. His head was pounding.

The feeling started during a 15 minute drive to his girlfriend’s house. He felt weak in the car, but the dizziness didn’t hit him until he stood up. It continued throughout the day whenever he stood and sat.

Rosay-Miller remembers promising herself that she wouldn’t eat until dinner. She thought that hunger and fainting were promising, a sign that she was on the right track to achieving her weight loss goals.

That June visit was the first time she had seen her boyfriend’s father in months. He and Rosay-Miller were very close. He calls her the daughter he never had, and he wishes her a happy Father’s Day. When he saw how much his body had changed, he was worried.

“She kept commenting on how thin I was. I’ve never seen her worry,” she said. “It made me realize there was a problem.”

His physical appearance shocked him because, unlike his close family and friends, he didn’t see him every day. The day was a major indicator for Rosay-Miller that she finally needed help.






ED_3.jpg

Niese prepared one of her lunch menus: pita with hummus and falafel. He said he prefers vegetarian food, but being vegetarian or vegan can be dangerous for an irregular diet. “People often fall into traps,” said Niese. “Sometimes people in recovery will become vegan or something, and that can be really dangerous just because when you have an eating disorder, you usually have foods that you try to avoid.”


University of Oregon sophomore student Rosay-Miller is one of millions of people struggling with eating disorders today. The stress and external isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has caused it, and many others, to relapse into unsafe behavior and irregular eating.

The increased stress during the pandemic has made eating disorders nationwide worse. The International Eating Disorder Journal conducted a study that found 62% of people with anorexia had an increased fear of food since the pandemic began. Nearly a third of people who have bulimia or an overeating disorder also experience an increase in symptoms. The National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Related Disorders reports that 28.8 million Americans will experience an eating disorder in their lifetime.

According to the National Eating Disorders Association, people who face a lot of external stress sometimes use food as a coping mechanism because it offers a feeling of comfort and control.

Rosay-Miller first noticed a change in her mental state in March 2020 during the first wave of infection. She said she was dealing with an abusive emotional relationship with her boyfriend at the time, and that she was also one of the many freshmen who got discharged from the spring boarding school. Being away from friends makes it difficult to find support when relationships start to deteriorate. For Rosay-Miller, part of her pandemic stress stems from her inability to get out or do anything to distract from the chaos that is going on around her.

“At those points, I definitely turn to eating disorders for coping skills. I just think it’s the only thing that can really help, “he said.” It was very traumatic and unsanitary. “

Situations that exacerbate stress often exacerbate irregular eating behavior, according to Nichole Kelly, an assistant professor at the UO College of Education who studies eating behavior and body image. Kelly says that feelings of stress, anxiety, or chronic stress can be linked to irregular eating patterns. Not much research has been done on how the COVID-19 pandemic affects eating disorders. However, Kelly knows, based on data from previous research, that stress and eating disorder behavior are directly correlated.

“Feelings that we don’t like, are uncomfortable with and that stress us out are major risk factors for eating disorders,” he said. “There’s no reason not to think that living through something like this will worsen an irregular eating pattern.”

The stress that accompanies the pandemic has only fueled the problems Rosay-Miller has been dealing with since childhood. His past with bodily insecurities resurfaced during the start of the pandemic.

The first time he said he felt he realized how his body should look when he was nine years old, walking back from the lunch room. She wore leggings and a crop top, which emphasized her figure. He placed his hand on his stomach and felt it bulge. Her stomach was distended after lunch, a natural reaction after eating. Rosay-Miller attracts and manipulates her body so that she doesn’t attract attention to herself.

“I feel like people are just looking at me,” he said. “And I feel I need to continue my standard of performance which has always been like this.”

Rosay-Miller says she has always been aware that she thinks about her food and body differently from other children her age. She was often told that her body was beautiful and perfect growing up. This was difficult for Rosay-Miller because it convinced her that beauty was the most important thing about her. It was a constant thought that ran through her mind from childhood to college. The compliment brings a lot of social pressure.

“I never talked about it to anyone. I don’t think it’s a big deal because I’m not emaciated,” he said. “People are constantly commenting on my appearance. And I think I internalized it as the only thing that matters to me.”

Her eating disorder behavior during quarantine started innocently. He wanted to go a few runs here and there after not exercising much during the face-to-face education. But then it got a little out of control.

“It was almost unconscious at first,” he said. “I started tracking my weight with the scales. I started to realize what I was getting into, but I still couldn’t stop.”

In less than two months, Rosay-Miller lost 20 pounds.






ED_2.jpg

Niese posted to his Instagram account, @mr_moving_official, to share his journey and inspire others who struggle with eating disorders. She posts pictures of herself, the food and coffee she likes, and daily reminders to her followers like this: “Here is your daily reminder for lunch today!”


She said that part of the reason why she started developing unhealthy behaviors was from the online pressure of being thin. Headlines such as, “Tips for Staying Fit During COVID-19” and “The Pandemic Diet: How to Lose ‘Quarantine 15” have increased their circulation on the internet recently. Headlines like these or social media posts about “inspiration” are a major contributor to bodily insecurity, according to Project Know, a national directory of addiction resources created by the American Addiction Center. The website says that while social media itself does not cause eating disorders in a person, the platform can facilitate comparisons and competition.

“It’s like something else above everyone telling me to look good,” said Rosay-Miller. That pressure got worse during the pandemic. “Take the terrible piece of social media and increase its frequency and intensity by a million.”






ED_7.jpg

“Healthy diets and diets stand out on social media and can be dangerous and trigger those struggling with eating disorders,” said Niese. “I think the rise of veganism and the health movement really contributed to it. I hate diets. I like to think of myself as anti-dieting. “


Maddy Niese, a 20-year-old Oregon State University student, struggles with weight loss culture on social media. She uses her Instagram, @maddysrecoveryjourney, to show the intimate part of her recovery from an eating disorder so that others won’t feel alone. Niese started the account in September 2020. He said he wanted to use his account to keep himself inspired in times of doubt. Niese also wanted to strike up a conversation about eating disorders in general and let others see the slippery world of healing.

“Diet culture is everywhere,” he said. “I don’t want to log on and see someone post about a calorie or a healthy version of a drink or something. Curating my diet to be body-positive is really important.”

Like Rosay-Miller, Niese has a long history of eating disorder behavior. He’s been in and out of recovery for over nine years. Her past experiences are reinforced by pandemic-related stress and social pressure. The transition to online schooling is one of the biggest hurdles for Niese. He called it “insurmountable stress.”

The treatment for Niese and Rosay-Miller are two very similar processes. Both include online outpatient care, which consists of virtual Zoom meetings where patients will eat together every day. Rosay-Miller says the best thing about an outpatient program is the structure it provides.

For Niese, the inpatient program process was difficult due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For a while, he had to go to a health facility because of his severe condition. He said many people live in the same house, which makes it difficult to enforce proper social distancing and COVID-19 prevention protocols.

“There’s also a big waiting list,” he said. “There are so many people grabbing that resource.”

He urged others who had fought a similar battle with an eating disorder for help. Even if someone is not diagnosed with an eating disorder, Niese said, many people may struggle with unhealthy habits without realizing it.

“I feel a lot of people, even though they don’t have an eating disorder, have an unhealthy relationship with food or exercise,” he said. “I want to share what recovery is like. It’s not about eating your food. It’s more about finding your identity as a human being.”

People of all ages, races, gender identities, sexual orientations, and backgrounds are subject to unhealthy eating disorder behavior, according to the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders.

Niese said eating disorders, similar to other mental illnesses, were not an option. However, he also said those who are struggling always have the option of choosing recovery.

“People don’t need to worry about their weight now. We are in a global pandemic,” he said. “I almost wanted to say this to my old self: It’s possible. Living in freedom is possible.”

.



image source

COVID-19 Locked Affects Adolescent Mental Health | Instant News


With most of the US forced to stay at home instead of working or schooling since March, it is unknown mental health the impact of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) possible in school-age children.

A team, led by Dr. Maria Loades, a clinical psychologist from the Department of Psychology at the University of Bath, established how loneliness and disease prevention measures can affect the mental health of children and adolescents.

Over the past few months the majority of children and adolescents in the US experience prolonged physical isolation from their friends, as well as teachers, extended families, and community networks.

While quarantining adults generally causes negative psychological effects, including confusion, anger, and post-traumatic stress, it is not known how these actions affect children.

In a quick review, researchers examined articles published between 1946-2020, with 20% of articles filtered using predetermined criteria and 20% of data duplicated for quality assurance.

Studies generally include children and adolescents, with participants experiencing social isolation or loneliness and valid assessments of depression, anxiety, trauma, obsessive compulsive disorder, mental health, or mental well-being.

The team found a total of 83 articles that met their inclusion criteria, with 63 studies reporting the impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of previously healthy children and adolescents (n = 51,576; mean age, 15.3). Of the included studies, 61 were observational, 18 were longitudinal, and 43 were cross-sectional studies assessing self-reported loneliness in healthy children and adolescents.

In addition, 1 study was a retrospective investigation after a pandemic and 2 studies evaluated interventions. Each study has a high risk of bias, but longitudinal studies have better methodological quality. The studies are mostly from the US, China, Europe and Australia, but also include studies conducted in India, Malaysia, Korea. Thailand, Israel, Iran and Russia.

Overall, the researchers found that social isolation and loneliness increased the risk of depression, and the likelihood of anxiety during loneliness, measured between 0.25-9 years later. The duration of loneliness is highly correlated with mental health symptoms rather than the intensity of loneliness.

The researchers found young people were 3 times more likely to develop depression in the future because of social isolation, with the impact of loneliness on mental health that lasted up to 9 years later.

“Children and adolescents may be more likely to experience high levels of depression and possibly anxiety during and after forced isolation ends,” the authors write. “This can increase because forced isolation continues. Clinical services must offer preventative support and early intervention if possible and prepare for an increase in mental health problems. “

Researchers say this study should lead policymakers to expect increased demand for mental health services from younger people in the next few years,

Learning, “Rapid Systematic Review: The impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of children and adolescents in the context of COVID-19 ‘, “Published online on the Internet Journal of the American Child and Youth Psychiatry Academy.

.



image source

Social isolation can cause depression in children long after being locked up now | Instant News


Children and adolescents tend to experience high levels of depression and anxiety long after locking and social isolation are now over and clinical services need to be prepared for surging demand in the future, according to the authors of a new quick review into the mental long-term health effects of locking.

The study, which drew more than 60 pre-existing peer-reviewed studies, into topics covering isolation, loneliness and mental health for young people aged 4-21, was published today (Monday, June 1, 2020) in Journal of the American Children’s and Youth Academy Psychiatry.

According to the review, lonely young people may be three times more likely to develop depression in the future, and that the impact of loneliness on mental health can last for at least 9 years.

The study highlights the relationship between loneliness and an increased risk of mental health problems for young people. There is also evidence that the duration of loneliness may be more important than the intensity of loneliness in increasing the risk of future depression among young people.

This, the authors say, should act as a warning to policymakers about the estimated increase in demand for mental health services from young people and young adults in the coming years – both here in the UK and throughout the world.

From our analysis, there is clearly a strong relationship between loneliness and depression in young people, both in the short and long term. We know this effect can sometimes be ignored, meaning that it can take up to 10 years to truly understand the scale of the mental health impact created by the co-19 crisis. “

Maria Loades, Clinical Psychologist, Department of Psychology, Bath University

For teachers and policymakers who are currently preparing to gradually restart schools in the UK, scheduled to start today, Monday June 1, Dr. Loades suggests this research could have important implications for how this process is managed as well.

He added: “There is evidence that it is the duration of loneliness that goes against the intensity that seems to have the greatest impact on the level of depression in young people.”

“This means that returning to normal levels as soon as possible is of course important.”

“However, how this process is managed is important when it comes to shaping young people’s feelings and experiences about this period.”

“For the youngest and their return to school starting this week, we need to prioritize the importance of the game in helping them reconnect with friends and adjust after this intense period of isolation.”

Members of the review team were also involved in a recent open letter to the British Secretary of Education, Gavin Williamson MP, who focused on supporting social and emotional well-being of children during and after locking. In their letter, they suggest that:

Easing locking restrictions must be done in a way that gives all children time and opportunity to play with peers, in and outside of school, and even when measures of social distance remain;

Schools must be appropriate resources and given clear guidance on how to support children’s emotional well-being during the transition when school reopens and that play – rather than academic progress – should be a priority during this time;

-The social and emotional benefits of playing and interacting with peers must be clearly communicated, in addition to guidance on objective risks for children.

Recognizing the compromises that need to be reached in terms of restarting the economy and reducing educational disparities, their letter to the Secretary of Education concluded: ‘Poor emotional health in children leads to long-term mental health problems, poorer educational attainment and many considerations of economic burden ‘

.



image source

Use functional MRI to show neural suppression in autism | Instant News


According to the National Autism Association, people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can experience sensory hypersensitivity. A University of Minnesota Medical School researcher recently published an article at Natural Communication which illustrates why that might be true by showing differences in perception of visual motion in ASD accompanied by weaker nerve suppression in the brain’s visual cortex.

While experts in neuroscience and psychiatry realizing that differences in sensory function are common among people with ASD, it is currently not understood what happens differently in the brain at the nerve level to cause variations in sensory perception.

Using functional MRI and visual assignments, lead author Michael-Paul Schallmo, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the U of M Medical School, and a research team at the University of Washington found:

  • People with ASD show an increase in perception of greater stimulation of movement compared with neuro-typical individuals;
  • The brain’s response to visual stimulation is different among young adults with ASD compared to people who have neuro-typical features. Specifically, brain response in the visual cortex shows less nerve suppression in ASD;
  • Computational models can illustrate differences in brain response.

Our work shows that there may be differences in how people with ASD focus their attention on objects in the visual world that can explain differences in the neural responses we see and may be related to symptoms such as sensory hypersensitivity. “

Michael-Paul Schallmo, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the U of M Medical School

Schallmo is currently working with collaborators at the U of M on a follow-up study of visual and cognitive function in adolescents with ASD, Tourette’s syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Having a better understanding of how these different disorders affect brain function can lead to new screening to better identify children at risk for ASD and related conditions. It can also help scientists find new targets for studies that seek to improve treatments for sensory symptoms in this disorder.

Source:

Journal reference:

Schallmo, M., et al. (2020) Suppression of weak nerves in autism. Natural Communication . doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16495-z.

.



image source

Worsening Sleep Increases Persistence of Depression in Elderly Patients | Instant News


The findings of a recent study from Johns Hopkins show that older adults depression are at a higher risk for remaining depressed if they experience persistent or worsening sleep problems.

Senior research author Adam Spira, PhD, and colleagues from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health analyzed data from nearly 600 adults who visited primary care centers in the Northeastern US to determine the relationship between sleep difficulties and the results of depression and suicidal ideation. The team found that adults> 60 years who have a worsening pattern insomnia symptoms in the following year had a nearly 30-fold chance of having a diagnosis of major depression by the end of the year compared to those who had improved sleep quality.

These findings indicate that for older adults with depression, insomnia symptoms offer important clues to their risk for ongoing depression and suicide ideas, Spira, a professor in the Department of Mental Health at Bloomberg School, said in a statement.

Spira and colleagues conducted a study in 20 primary care locations from May 1999 to August 2001. To be eligible, the participants >60 years old, living in the community, speaking English, and attending scheduled visits with primary care doctors.

All patients who had oral consent were screened for depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Those who score above 20 as well as a random 5% sample with a lower score are invited.

To measure sleep, the researchers used sleep-specific items from the 24-item version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The test is given at the beginning, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months.

The items included an assessment of how the patient had slept during the past week, what time they woke up in the morning for the last time, and if the patient woke up in the middle of the night. The answers are summed to get an overall sleep scale score ranging from 0-6, with higher scores representing worse sleep.

Depression was diagnosed at baseline and 12 months by trained research assistants using a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis Diagnosis. The main outcome was remission, which was defined as a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score <10 at 12 months.

For the idea of ​​suicide, the team used Scale for Suicidal Ideation which measures its presence and intensity. The scale reflects the patient’s lack of desire to live, the desire to live, and the belief that the reason for death exceeds the reason for living.

The overall sample of patients included 599 depressed people – 66.1% met the criteria for major depression while 33.9% had clinically significant minor depression. The mean age of patients was 70.3 years and the majority (71.6%) were women.

Compared with those whose sleep improved, those with worsening sleep were more likely to have a diagnosis of severe depression (AOR, 28.6; 95% CI, 12.15-67.34), a diagnosis of mild depression that was clinically significant (AOR, 11.88; 95% CI , 5.67 -24.89), and suicidal ideation (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1,005-1,199) at one-year follow-up. What’s more, people with worsening sleep are half as likely to achieve remission (aOR, .52; 95% CI, .46-.57).

This finding highlights that older patients who are treated for depression who also have sleep problems should receive further clinical attention. Sleep problems should also be explored more as a potential way to improve depression outcomes in older adults.

Learning, “The role of persistent and worsening sleep disorders in remission of depression and ideas of suicide among older primary care patients: PROSPECT study, “Published online in the journal Sleep.

.



image source