The study shows that the level of available SARS-cov-2 immunity is present in the General population, the researchers note. (Public)
Singapore scientists have uncovered T-cell immunity characteristic of SARS-cov-2 restored Covid-19 & SARS patients and in uninfected individuals. the Results of a study published in Nature.
T cells, along with antibodies are part of immune responses against human viral infections. T cells and directly kill the infected cells. In the study, specific T-cells were found in all subjects who recovered from SARS 17 years ago, and more than 50% as SARS-coronavirus-1 and SARS-cov-2 uninfected individuals tested. This suggests that the level of available SARS-cov-2 immunity is present in the General population, the researchers note.
They realized that the infection and the impact of coronaviruses induces long-lasting T-cell memory that can help in managing the current pandemic. This may be due to cross-reactive immunity derived from exposure to other coronaviruses, such as those that cause the common cold. The researchers say that it is important to understand if this may explain why some people are better able to control the infection.
Brazil is another sad milestone in the coronavirus pandemic. This surpassed two million cases on Thursday. They have now been officially infected with 2.01 million people by coronavirus. Even their president, Jair Bolsonaro, is still struggling with Covid-19.
Brazil’s infection rate declined for three full days starting July 10, but jumped again on July 14 with almost 42,000 cases. On July 15, they had 40,000 positive tests.
Around 76,688 people have died of this disease so far, with a mortality rate of 3.8%, which is equivalent to the US mortality rate and is better than the mortality rate in China (5.44%) and the United Kingdom (15%).
The Brazilian infection curve does not decrease.
The virus came to Brazil in February, just weeks after the Carnival celebration. However, it is unclear whether the large gathering was the source of the plague in Brazil. What is known is that the first few cases reported about Covid-19 all came from Brazil returning from Italy on a business trip.
Five months after this and Brazil is not far from the forest.
An increase in testing is one reason for the high number.
There is a new epidemic center now, with the capital being the most pressing place after the virus began in Rio de Janeiro and the state of Sao Paulo.
Some governors take action on locking and masks are now worn in public. Schools have been canceled for months, although some schools may return after a winter break in July in the south.
Unlike the US section, when schools are closed in Brazil, there is no online education for K-12 students, especially in the public school system. Therefore, Brazilians are basically off campus and have not been educated every day since around March.
Paulo Medeiro, a sub-secretary for Bolsonaro’s Chief of Staff, told residents of one of the hardest hit areas in the capital – known as Ceilândia – that the nearest hospital was approaching their saturation point.
“The whole world is facing this pandemic,” he said. “To be sure we will do everything we can to ensure we can increase the number of beds, but we will reach our limit,” he said.
Local businesses want to reopen on schedule. That should happen next week after the lockout took effect on July 9. “We need your help,” Medeiro told protesters on Thursday. “We must unite. (Bolsonaro Administration) seeks to bring you back to normal life, “he said.
Indeed, most of America is waiting right now.
It should be noted, SARS coronavirus was first discovered in November 2002 and then stopped being a problem for China 8 months later.
If this new SARS version follows in the footsteps of its predecessor, then maybe, if the world is lucky, it will disappear in the same time frame.
In China, where the virus was first discovered in December, only a small outbreak was reported in one part of Beijing last month. Nationally, there are no coronavirus cases, at least officially. We are now in the 8th month of SARS 2.0 in China. There is no second wave in Wuhan, the center of a pandemic virus.
Like the US, the first case was reported around February. If this lasts 8 months, we will deal with this until October. So, hopefully, it will never come back again, just like the first round.
Most epidemiologists believe it will return next year.
“When this goes on, it will be increasingly difficult to maintain the kind of support that has been given by the government,” said Luiz Demello, an economist at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. He did not choose Brazil, but Brazil was in the same spending boat as every other country – from Europe to his neck in the jungle in South America. “We see poor countries where debt to GDP has risen 15 percentage points, more than the increase during the Great Financial Crisis. If there is a second wave next year, all of these governments need to maintain the security measures they have taken, and the question is whether it is sustainable again. “
This point is further substantiated by the careful fourteen-year report commissioned by the federal and provincial governments after the 2003 SARS outbreak. The report anticipates the current COVID-19 pandemic and outlines a comprehensive public health response.
The recommendations contained in the report were basically ignored by all levels of government throughout the country.
Entitled “Canada’s Influenza Pandemic Plan for the Health Sector,” this 550-page report is a significant effort, developed through collaborative government at the federal, provincial or regional, and local levels.
He recalled the devastating impact of the pandemic and reaffirmed the need for preparedness, collaboration across provincial boundaries and government jurisdictions, and rapid response to early cases of influenza pandemic in the country.
Of special note is that the report was written jointly by Theresa Tam, the country’s current Chief Public Health Officer. Until January 29 this year, Tam underestimated the risk for Canadians from the new corona virus as “far, far lower than many countries.”
Tam made this statement a month after the federal government and doctors across the country were notified of a new virus outbreak in the Wuhan market that would be a source of pandemic. Four days earlier, on January 25, Canada had recorded its first COVID-19 case.
Even more surprising is how accurately this 2006 report predicts the development of outbreaks in Canada.
Under the section titled “Background,” the report makes predictions that this type of influenza pandemic is likely to originate in Asia, and that it might arrive in Canada within three months. The report goes on to estimate that the peak of infection will occur two to four months after the arrival of the virus, with the peak of death occurring one month afterwards.
Surprisingly, the report also predicted that more than 70 percent of the population would be infected with the virus. A “mild to moderate” epidemic will cause 15 to 35 percent of the population to become clinically ill (5.6 to 13 million people), with a staggering 10,000 to 60,000 deaths. The number of COVID-19 victims in Canada, currently at 7,395, continues to approach the lower limit of this projection.
Although the focus of the report is on influenza viruses, different from the novel 2019 coronavirus (designated SARS-CoV-2), this projection maintains its validity because of the same pathological features of both viruses, including the mode of transmission and symptoms of the disease. .
Therefore, the public health measures advocated by this report in the “Preparedness” section are no less interesting.
They stressed the need for rapid “collection, collection and analysis of epidemiological, laboratory and clinical data” about the new pandemic virus. This requires strong research preparation and testing capacity in the country’s medical laboratory. Instead, because of years of cuts in health care funding, Canada’s testing capacity remained very low even as the pandemic entered its sixth month.
In addition, a 2004 consultation by the World Health Organization cited in the report confirmed that the containment of the new pandemic virus would require “aggressive public health care measures,” including the use of “antiviral drugs, contact tracing, quarantine and outgoing screening.”
The report quietly acknowledges the plight of public health services in Canada. It described the country’s health care agency as “walking at maximum or near maximum bed capacity,” and warned that the pandemic could “exceed the capacity of current health care settings to deal with it.”
Images in 2020 of health care professionals who work with inadequate or non-existent personal protective equipment, and must request surgical mask donations from the general population, serve as a tragic confirmation that this warning is ignored by all levels of government and all political parties major in the 14 years after the report was published.
The three pillars of testing, contact tracing, and quarantine form the majority of the report’s plan to combat the pandemic prior to vaccine development. A group of data tables establish recommended public health measures to be applied at each stage of the evolution of a pandemic.
For example, even in scenarios where a foreign virus only hatches sporadic infections in Canada, the report recommends an approach only a few countries take to stop the spread of COVID-19, especially South Korea.
This determines “the collection and dissemination of epidemiological and clinical data for cases that occur in Canada,” followed by the need to “isolate cases,” and “quarantine or activity restrictions [sic] contact. “
Without providing political support to the South Korean capitalist government, it is clear that the early and aggressive detention of the COVID-19 outbreak through mass testing and contact tracing enabled it to emerge from the first wave of a pandemic with less than 300 dead.
Just as it was ignored for more than a decade by the federal, provincial, and municipal governments in Canada, the report has basically been ignored in corporate media pandemic coverage. To draw attention to this “pandemic guidebook” is to indict Canada’s big business government, past and present, for deliberately rejecting rational public health directives.
Governments throughout the country, from Trudeau and Liberals in Ottawa to the right Conservative Ford in Ontario and the Quebec Legault Avenir Coalition regime, instead rushed to fight to reopen all workplaces and public institutions. They did so by opposing warnings from medical experts that the return of early restriction could cause millions of infections and thousands of other deaths.
At the same time, a concerted effort is being made to blame the rise in infection in ordinary working class people. Stories about large crowds ignoring social distance guidelines have recently been given extensive coverage in the company’s press, ignoring the fact that figures like Ford exaggerate the mid-April decline in the new COVID-19 case to increase the government’s push to get back to work .
Nevertheless, the 2006 report remains an important document to illustrate how Canada, or any country, can effectively manage the current pandemic from a health perspective. This will be a valuable resource in future worker-led trials into dealing with the criminal ruling of Canada’s ruling elite over the current crisis.
The doctor has requested the deployment of security guards at the hospital
PICTURE OF REPRESENTATIVE
KARACHI: Crowds rushed to Karachi Civil Hospital on Friday night after a coronavirus patient died during treatment and attacked on-duty medical staff.
At least 70 people entered the hospital and took the bodies of the deceased from the emergency room and also harassed and attacked the medical officers on duty, according to hospital management.
Doctors claim that patient swabs are taken according to standard operating procedures (SOP).
MS Hospital Dr. Khadim Qureshi confirmed the incident The Express Tribune that the police were asked to file an FIR against those involved in the attack.
“Doctors demand security. “It’s difficult for them to work in situations like this,” he added.
Another doctor who was on duty at the time, said the incident occurred at around 11 pm. He and other doctors on duty were also tortured and tortured. “This is the third time in a week,” he said.
The doctor stated that the police, who were stationed outside the hospital gates, did not help the medical staff. No arrests have been made yet and doctors have requested the deployment of Sindh Rangers for safety.
Asad Umar said the implementation of SOP and social distance was only possible through education and public awareness
ISLAMABAD: Pakistan conducted the highest number of tests per day during the past 24 hours, the National Command and Operations Center (NCOC) was told.
A total of 14,878 tests were carried out by health authorities across the country on Friday.
During the NCOC meeting, chaired by the Minister of Development Reform Planning and Special Initiative Asad Umar, satisfaction with the increased testing capacity was expressed. Capacity has increased about 30 times. The country has two laboratories to test Covid-19 samples in mid-March and now has 70 laboratories.
Provincial chief secretaries including Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), provided input on the implementation of health protocols and standard operating procedures (SOPs) after the May 9 decision, the congregation of Eid prayer together with the implementation of SOPs designed for industry and markets.
Speaking on that occasion, Umar said the implementation of SOPs and social distance were only possible through education and public awareness.
The forum is of the view that market associations and merchant organizations must ensure compliance with SOPs issued by the ministry of health. In the case of non-compliance, certain markets as a whole will be closed because they fail to ensure collective responsibility.
“The country’s testing capacity has increased positively and more than 14,000 tests have been carried out in the country which is encouraging and needs to be increased further,” Umar said
He noted that Pakistan has been fast in increasing its capacity and capability. “Where there is a will there is a way,” he said.
“Pakistanis cannot be left under pandemic rule. We have and will move every resource available to reduce the challenges of ordinary people. We will take all necessary steps for the public safety and welfare of the people of Pakistan and there is no other choice but to make an all-out effort. “
He further said that there was no shortage of equipment in the country, but it was necessary to focus on managing human resources trained to handle the pandemic.
An epidemiologist and other health expert briefed the forum on future virus behavior for May and June. A risk and crisis management plan along with an appropriate response from the health care system, including the amount of ICU bed capacity, ventilators and personal protection equipment are also discussed.
Punjab Industry Minister Mian Aslam Iqbal told the forum that around 336 warning notices were issued for different markets and industries about violations of SOPs while repeated violations would be sealed according to established mechanisms.
Interior Minister Brigadier (Ret.) Ijaz Ahmed Shah suggested that the district government should engage with trade associations and local stakeholders for the implementation of the SOP.
The forum also mentioned that Ehsaas Emergency Cash Assistance will resume on Monday where SOPs designed for public safety must be ensured to contain a pandemic.
Around Rs104 billion has been distributed among 8 million beneficiaries through the Ehsaas Emergency Cash Assistance while an Rs50 billion aid package is being prepared to help 3.5 million small and medium enterprises (SMEs).
In addition, an Rs50 billion agricultural assistance package for farmers was launched and as a result, Rs50 billion was allocated to the health sector.
Specially formulated antimicrobial layers can keep the surface clean of human corona viruses for up to 90 days with just one application, a preliminary study says, suggests a new line of defense against COVID-19.
A paper by researchers at the University of Arizona (UA), which has not been reviewed by colleagues, found that the number of viruses on coated surfaces was reduced by 90% in 10 minutes and 99.9% in two hours. Charles Gerba, a microbiologist at UA who is the study’s senior author, said the technology was “the next advance in infection control.” “I think it is mostly important for high used surfaces such as subways and buses, because you can disinfect them but then the next people who come there will contaminate the surface again,” he said.
“This is not a substitute for regular cleaning and disinfecting, but it protects you between disinfectants and regular cleaning.” The UA team tested a layer specifically designed to act on viruses developed by the company Allied BioScience, which also funded their research. The researchers tested human coronavirus 229E, which is similar in structure and genetics to SARS-CoV-2 but only causes mild flu symptoms and is therefore safer to use.
The coating works by “denaturing” viral proteins – effectively twisting them out of shape – and attacking their protective fat layer.
Colorless substances are sprayed on the surface, and must be reapplied every three to four months. The technology behind what is called disinfectant coating has been around for almost a decade, and has been used in hospitals to combat the spread of infections, including antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Both diplomats expressed commitment to further strengthen bilateral relations
Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi on Friday exchanged views on the socio-economic consequences of the coronavirus pandemic with Japanese Foreign Minister Toshimitsu Motegi.
During a telephone conversation, FM Qureshi briefed Motegi about “Global Initiative on Debt Removal” by Prime Minister Imran Khan for developing countries underlined that without immediate, coordinated and comprehensive action to create fiscal space, developing countries might have to compete socially, terrible politics and economic consequences.
FM Qureshi also expressed his condolences for the loss of valuable lives and praised the effective steps taken by Japan to overcome the plague, according to a press release issued by the Foreign Office (FO).
The foreign minister also thanked his Japanese counterparts for their assistance to Pakistan to fight the corona virus as well as in dealing with desert locust attacks.
Top diplomats convince each other to help their stranded citizens in every possible way.
The foreign minister also told his Japanese counterpart about human rights violations in Indian-occupied Kashmir (IOK) which continued without interruption while fears had increased about the spread of infections due to restrictions on the spread of information and unlimited access to medical supplies and other important supplies. .
“There is also concern about the demonization of Indian Muslims in the context of the growing Covid-19 and Islamophobia,” FO said.
Both diplomats expressed commitment to further strengthen bilateral relations and agreed to commemorate 70 years of establishing Pakistan-Japan diplomatic relations in 2022 in an appropriate manner.
SARS Epidemic 2003: How the Canadian elite wasted the opportunity to prepare for the COVID-19 pandemic
May 15, 2020
The response of the Canadian ruling elite to the COVID-19 pandemic is not a disaster or, more precisely, social crime.
Predictable and predictable pandemics have resulted in more than 73,000 confirmed cases and 5,468 deaths.
Since its inception, Canada’s response to the novel coronavirus has been paralyzed by a lack of personal protective equipment, COVID-19 testing and medical personnel, the scarcity of contact tracing and lack of coordination and general planning. The country is underfunded, not well equipped, and in many cases senior non-profit homes and long-term care facilities have become the real killing fields. Now, with the blessing of the federal Liberal government, the provinces are “reopening” the economy, forcing workers in non-essential sectors to return to work without adequate safety measures and equipment so that big businesses can continue to benefit from their work. .
This disaster response is far more burdensome considering that Canada experienced a major outbreak of acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. Outside East Asia, Canada is the country worst affected by the SARS-CoV virus. 44 people died of SARS in Canada from 438 confirmed and suspected cases, most of them concentrated in the greater Toronto area between March and June 2003.
The experience of dealing with this highly contagious respiratory disease should mean that the Canadian government and health authorities are ready and ready to respond to COVID-19, a close relative of SARS.
After the SARS epidemic, Canadian authorities were forced to admit that they had revealed serious weaknesses in the public health care system, most of them tied to years of savings. They vowed to make changes to ensure that the country’s health system will have the resources and systems to effectively fight the new virus in the future.
But 17 years later, despite Ontario’s many public reports and investigations into Canada’s response to the SARS epidemic and a large number of their recommendations for the improvement of the country’s health system, many of the same failures that caused deaths in 2003 have re-emerged – only today on a much bigger and more terrible scale.
The 2003 SARS outbreak in Canada
Following the same path as COVID-19, the global SARS epidemic began in China and was moved to Ontario in March 2003 by a group of cases transplanted from southern China and Hong Kong. A special unit dedicated to SARS treatment was established in the hospital, non-essential procedures were postponed and visits were very limited.
The majority of Canadian SARS cases (72 percent) contract disease in hospitals, with healthcare workers making up the majority of those infected. Casualization of work in the health sector, as a result of years of spending cuts, plays a major role in the spread of disease between health facilities in the Toronto area. Nurses and hospital workers and other hospital workers who have to find work in several hospitals to provide them with work worth the time accidentally repeatedly spread infection from one facility to another.
SARS and COVID-19 (also known as SARS CoV-2) have the same origin and both result in acute respiratory diseases that can cause fatal attacks of pneumonia. While SARS is almost as infectious as COVID-19 and people only become infectious once symptoms are seen making it easier to detain, authorities and health workers are now benefiting from more information about new coronaviruses than those who fought the 2003 epidemic. in 2003, it took one month to identify the pathogen and sort its genome, a process that was achieved in 2 weeks for COVID-19.
The severity of the SARS epidemic was mainly due to cuts in savage spending and attacks on workers imposed by all governments during the previous decade. Between 1995 and 1998, the federal Liberal government Jean Chretien implemented the largest social spending cuts in Canadian history, including cuts in payment for transfers made to the province for health care, post-secondary education and social welfare.
In Ontario, the hard-right Conservative Progressive government Mike Harris closed down hospitals, privatized many long-term care, destroyed public health regulations, imposed steep social spending cuts and undermined work protection for workers.
Overall, these policies have led to a series of failures in disease control. These include meat contamination with prions responsible for bovine-spongiform encephalopathy (Mad Cow disease), a deadly outbreak of E. coli poisoning in Walkerton, Ontario in 2000 and the emergence of West Nile virus in 2002. The Walkerton Crisis, which resulted in seven death, clearly reveals the relationship between capitalist savings and deteriorating public health, because it is directly linked to the privatization of water testing.
Draw lessons from the SARS epidemic
The seriousness of the Canadian SARS outbreak promotes public protest and demands for accounting why Canada, and especially Ontario, is evident among western capitalist countries that are uniquely prepared for an epidemic. Various reports have been produced which punish federal and provincial governments for the state of public health.
In the final report of the SARS Commission, which reached 1,200 pages when it was published in 2007, Chief Justice Archie Campbell was forced to blame at the feet of the Canadian ruling elite, writing:
“Why is Ontario so unprepared for SARS? Our community’s health and emergency infrastructure is in a depraved state, deprived of resources by the governments of the three political parties [Liberals, Conservatives and NDP]. The capacity of the health system to protect its workers is in a neglected condition: only a few are malnourished. There is no system to prevent SARS or stop it. “
Campbell also acknowledged that if SARS did not develop into a much broader crisis, this was caused by the actions of health care workers and the population in general, not the political elite. He wrote, “The only thing that saves us from worse disasters is the courage and sacrifice and personal initiative of those who step in – nurses, doctors, paramedics and others – sometimes at great personal risk, to get us through a crisis. that should never have happened. Underlying all their work is the extraordinary response of the wider community: patience, cooperation, supportiveness. “
The issue of job casualization in the health sector is also discussed. The “Panel of Experts on SARS and Infectious Diseases” assigned by the province recommended the minimization of casual employment in the health system given the shortage of personnel during the epidemic. Separate reports, led by doctors and pandemic control expert David Naylor are entitled Learn from SARS, recommended a large block of federal funds for the province including $ 100 million for disease surveillance.
Capitalist savings prevent implementation of recommendations
The years of intervention see governments at all levels, especially after the 2008 global financial crisis, stepping up new efforts to cut social spending and privatize public services. Successive federal governments, under Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper and Liberal Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, impose an “increase” in inflation below to transfer payments to the provinces. Since coming to power in 2015, for example, Liberals have increased health transfers by a little more than 3 percent per year, effectively the same rate set by their Conservative predecessors. This has resulted in health care budgets being cut in real terms throughout the country, even as demand for health services increases due to population growth and an aging population.
Allotment of health care funds means that even under normal conditions, hospitals now operate near their limits and often exceed their capacity. Health workers and experts have noted that despite SARS experience, the government failed to ensure bed capacity to deal with other public health emergencies. Doctors for years argued that hospitals did not leave margins for patient entry. Hospitals must use no more than 85 percent of their capacity under normal circumstances to accommodate patient surges. However, most Ontario hospitals have used 100-110 percent of the available beds, resulting in a drastic increase in what is called “hallway medicine.”
Planning and implementing further austerity measures continue until the current pandemic strikes. In Ontario, where per capita hospital beds are among the lowest in OECD countries, the two-year government of Doug Ford Tory further cuts health funds in the 2018 financial reform and 2019 budget, including announcing sweeping cuts of up to 30 percent in the budget for health Public.
Due to fierce public opposition, the government temporarily suspended cuts to provincial public health authorities, but last November, Ontario Health Minister Christine Elliot told the media that the cuts would be fully implemented in 2020 and beyond. In an expression of the bankruptcy of all bourgeois parties, amid the current pandemic, Andrea Horwath, leader of the Ontario New Democrats, called not for the abolition of Ford’s proposed public health cut but their delay until the pandemic ended. .
One recommendation from Learn from SARS the report carried out was the formation of the Canadian Public Health Agency (PHAC). The purpose of PHAC is to coordinate federal disease control, prevention, and emergency response. Further motivation for its creation is to facilitate better communication between government agencies and with the wider community. However, the budget for PHAC has remained stagnant for years. According to the University of Saskatchewan Cory Neudorf epidemiologist, each province uses clever accounting tricks to inflate their real spending on public health programs.
After the 2009 swine flu outbreak, experts told parliament that the system was on the verge of collapse due to the flu and that not only procedures were not essential, but vital operations were being delayed. The politicians assured them that they agreed that health care spending should be increased. But the years that followed cutting real health spending provided a clear indication of the level of urgency they provided to strengthen Canada’s increasingly dilapidated health system. In addition to the issue of “hallway drugs” in Ontario and Quebec’s long waiting list for important medical procedures and overcrowded emergency departments, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia have witnessed the closure of large-scale hospital emergency rooms and the transfer of patients due to lack of doctors.
Chronic lack of funds and government indifference undermine a pandemic response
After COVID-19 was first identified in China in January, Canadian authorities wasted two critical months before taking decisive action to combat the spread of the disease. These delays, which made the federal government only write to the provinces on March 10 to inquire about the state of their medical supplies, all became increasingly criminal given that one of the important lessons from the SARS outbreak was the need to act quickly to control and isolate the virus.
It also quickly emerged that the provincial government had failed to maintain a supply of critical personal protective equipment (PPE). In Ontario, where 55 million N-95 face masks are stockpiled after SARS, masks are allowed to expire in 2017 without being replaced. In total, the government spent 45 million dollars on PPE and other materials needed for healthcare staff after SARS. But in early 2013, the authorities began to dispose of 80 percent of it because the inventory had become obsolete. Scandally, no steps were taken to replace the destroyed pile, although the problem was explicitly discussed in the 2017 Ontario general auditor’s report.
Failure by political institutions to learn SARS lessons has been demonstrated especially in disaster situations in long-term care facilities. More than 80 percent of Canada’s 5,500 deaths have been recorded among nursing home residents. An important factor in the spread of this disease is dependence on low-wage, part-time or casual workers – exactly the same problem that Ontario experienced with nurses and other hospital staff in 2003. In addition, care workers face a chronic shortage of PPE. and other needs to help protect themselves and the long-term care of residents of the house from infection.
A decade of scarcity of public health funds has also hampered response efforts. PHAC Director Dr. Peter Donnelly claimed in January that the state laboratory was in a good position to test the virus. However, the level of testing in this country remains relatively low. Canada has conducted more than 30,000 tests per million population, compared with 37,000 in Germany, 46,000 in Italy, and 42,000 in Russia. Extensive testing and contact tracing are important tools for identifying cases and preventing the uncontrolled spread of the virus in the workplace and the wider community.
In mid-March, Naylor, author of the book Learn from SARS reports, and other doctors, speak to Lancet about other shortcomings of the Canadian government’s response to the pandemic. They argue that the threat of COVID-19 has been “underestimated and understated” by officials in positions of authority and pointed to the lack of a national digital health infrastructure to help coordinate responses. Michael Schull, president of the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences and an emergency physician at Sunnybrook Hospital in Toronto, criticized the lack of funds “for renovations to achieve minimum facility standards for infection control in the emergency department,” including the availability of negative pressure rooms in each hospital, which is very important to prevent transmission of the virus through the air. John Bergeron, co-director of the laboratory system for medicine and cell biology at McGill University in Montreal, pointed to the incriminating fact that the biomedical research budget has been cut in real terms over the past decade.
The inability of the Canadian ruling elite to apply the lessons learned from the SARS crisis and take basic preparatory steps underlines its disdain for the lives and welfare of the working people. This has been a feature of the government’s global response, which has been based on the priority of the company’s profit on human life. While a multi-billion-dollar bailout package for banks and large companies was adopted throughout Europe and North America at high speed, the basic steps of public health were ignored. Now, with global cases approaching 4.5 million and a mortality rate of more than 300,000, the ruling elites in each country are trying to return workers to work amid a pandemic and embrace a “herd immunity” policy, ignoring all joint efforts to stop the spread . viruses and protect human life to the fullest.
The organization of scientifically guided responses to the corona virus based on the best available medical knowledge, including those from SARS epidemic experiences, is only possible under the leadership of the working class. The socialist reorganization of society is seen as an urgent need to redirect the enormous financial and material resources currently controlled by an insatiable capitalist oligarchy toward the defense of human life and social needs in the midst of a pandemic.
A health worker checks the temperature of residents of Istanbul. Nearly 6,000 “tracking” teams track potential cases of the new corona virus 24 hours a day. PHOTO: AFP
ISTANBUL: With full protective equipment, two doctors climbed the stairs four at a time. Their first assignment that day: to test a woman who had been in contact with a coronavirus patient in Istanbul.
Seemingly disturbed by the appearance of the man in white on his landing, residents in the densely-populated Fatih district answered their questions before he was tested.
He will get the results the next day.
In Turkey, nearly 6,000 “tracking” teams – all health professionals – track potential Covid-19 cases 24 hours a day by identifying and following up with people who have been in contact with patients.
By helping to find new cases which were then quickly isolated and treated, the Turkish government said the search had helped to contain the outbreak and limit the number of deaths.
Even if some observers question the reliability of official figures, Turkey’s death rate appears to be relatively low given the number of infections – with 3,641 deaths recorded and more than 133,700 cases, according to data released Thursday.
Health Minister Fahrettin Koca said on Monday that he believed tracking was “at the heart of (Turkey’s) success” in the fight against the disease.
The story so far: On April 23, Oxford University began a phase-1 human clinical trial of its vaccine – ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 – against a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. A single dose of vaccine candidates will be given to 1,112 healthy volunteers to study safety, ability to produce an immune response and vaccine efficacy. Oxford University is optimistic about the positive results of vaccine candidates and has planned to get millions of vaccine doses before the end of the year even though the results of the final phase of the trial (phase-3) are awaited. The vaccine candidate was developed by the University Jenner Institute which began trials on humans on April 23 together with the Oxford University Vaccine Group.
How was the vaccine tested constructed?
The vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, uses the common cold virus (adenovirus) which causes infection in chimpanzees. Adenovirus has been genetically altered so that it doesn’t grow after being injected. Its construction carries genetic material from new coronaviruses that make spike proteins. Surge proteins are found on the surface of the virus and play an important role in binding specific human receptors found on the cell surface and entering the cell.
By introducing genetic material from protein spikes, vaccine candidates will help the body recognize it and make antibodies against protein spikes. The antibodies produced will help improve the immune response and prevent the virus from entering human cells and causing infection.
Oxford University has used a vaccine made from adenovirus construction for more than 320 people and has found that it is safe and well tolerated. It does cause temporary side effects such as fever, headaches or diseased arms but is otherwise safe.
Has it been tested on animals?
The adenovirus construction has been used by Oxford University researchers to test the safety of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 2002 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). After the safety of the MERS vaccine was proven in trials conducted in the UK, the trial began in December last year in Saudi Arabia, where MERS outbreaks often occur.
Safety of vaccine candidates was previously tested on six rhesus monkeys.
A single dose protects all six animals for almost a month even when exposed to high levels of the virus, increasing the confidence of researchers.
How is the clinical trial process?
Up to 1,112 healthy volunteers from Oxford, Southampton, London and Bristol have been recruited for phase-1 trials. Volunteers, both men and women between 18-55 years old, are being recruited for the trial. A single dose of vaccine candidates will be given to volunteers. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive vaccine candidates (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or ‘control’, the MenACWY vaccine, for comparison.
Oxford University uses the MenACWY vaccine – which protects against four types of meningococcal bacteria – rather than copy control. The participants will not know whether he accepted the vaccine candidate or not. University researchers will also test two vaccine candidate doses given four weeks separately to a small group of 10 volunteers to assess the dose and immune response.
For the control group, why are vaccines for meningococcal bacteria used and not copy?
The MenACWY vaccine is a licensed vaccine given routinely to adolescents in the UK since 2015. The MenACWY vaccine is used as an “active control” vaccine to help understand participant responses to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. The reason for using this vaccine, rather than copy control, is because researchers hope to see some small side effects of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine such as arm pain, headaches, and fever. Saline does not cause this side effect. If participants only receive this vaccine or copy control, and then develop side effects, they will realize that they have received a new vaccine. It is important for this study, said Oxford University, that participants remain blind to whether they have received the vaccine or not, “such as, if they know, this can affect their health behavior in the community after vaccination, and can lead to bias in research results” .
While all participants will be told how to reduce the risk of infection, it is necessary that participants who receive both the vaccine are exposed to the virus and some are infected. Only thus will it be possible to understand if the vaccinated group remains protected or not compared to the control group. For this purpose, keeping participants in the dark about the vaccine received makes a strong trial.
What is the schedule for the trial?
Phase-1 trials are expected to be completed by the end of May if transmission remains high in the community. Phase-2 trials can be completed in August-September. According to Suresh Jadhav, Executive Director of the Indian Serum Institute Pvt. Ltd., phase-2 and phase-3 trials can be combined if the phase-1 trial results are encouraging.
When will the Pune Serum Institute start making vaccines?
According to Mr. Jadhav, the company will start producing vaccines once phase-3 or phase-2 / phase-3 trials begin. If the last two stages of the experiment are combined they will start producing vaccines at the end of June and be ready with millions of doses by the end of the year. The company is confident that it will produce 60-70 million doses of vaccine by the end of this year. He said, “Because we will start making it when the final phase of the trial begins, we will have millions of vaccine doses ready when the trial ends.”
How much does it cost?
In a tweet on April 30, Oxford University said that they partnered with AstraZeneca to produce and distribute vaccines as quickly as possible. It was said that the vaccine would be available on a “not for profit basis for the duration of the coronavirus pandemic”.
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