Tag Archives: Science & Health

What can England learn from Japanese and German social care | Instant News


After more than a decade of delay and several failed attempts, the government is reportedly preparing for another attempt to solve the UK social care crisis.

“The system being considered by officials is a modified version of how Japan and Germany fund social care,” Security report.

“Both are widely admired for creating sustainable ways to finance social care to deal with the increasing needs brought by the elderly population.”

What is wrong with the UK system?

“The current system is widely regarded as unfair, complex, confusing and fails to meet the growing care needs of the population,” he said Nuffield Trust.

This varies greatly not only between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, but also between different local authorities in each part of England.

While some people are paid by the state, others must use a large part of their savings before they can receive government support.

How does social care work in Japan?

Japan has “one of the most comprehensive social care systems for the elderly in the world”, said Conversation. It was introduced in 2000 after a long debate about how to care for the oldest population in the world.

“This system is partly funded by a national insurance fund that is paid more than 40s into and in part from general and local taxation,” Nuffield Trust said. Individuals pay 10% of the cost of their own pocket.

“Japan has traditionally relied on hospitals to provide care for long-term sick people,
although the use of home care is increasing, “said Dana Raja. “Residential care institutions are not permitted to make a profit,” but home care is largely provided by private companies.

Eligibility for services is determined by a medical assessment carried out by the care manager, who is then responsible for organizing the necessary support.

“The essence of the Japanese system is a strong commitment to the prevention of long-term loneliness and ill health,” said the Nuffield Trust.

This represented “in contrast to Britain’s short-term approach, driven by budgetary constraints, which increasingly focused only on those who had the highest needs”, he added.

How does social care work in Germany?

In 1994, Germany launched “a universal and equitable funding model, supported by the two main political parties”, said the London School of Economics.

Less expensive than the Japanese system, it was intended only “to fulfill basic needs”, said Dana Raja. But the care provided is identical across countries and is determined by the individual’s needs rather than his ability to pay.

Even though richer individuals are expected to add to the government’s contribution with their own money, they are not expected to pay all their care costs – because they are in the UK. Poorer Germans can propose proven benefits to cover funding gaps.

To fund the system “everyone starts paying into funds since they started working”, said AM City. “At present 1.5% of everyone’s salary, and the same amount from the employer, is protected to pay for treatment at a later date.”

The contribution “is managed by a health insurance company,” Dana Raja said, and was used to pay various supports. “Almost all social care, including institutional and home care, is provided by private providers,” he added.

What can Britain learn from Japan and Germany?

The proposal to increase taxes for people over the age of 40 to fund universal care in old age “emerged as the government’s preferred solution to the social care crisis, after Boris Johnson last year promised to fix it ‘once and for all’,” City AM reported.

If Johnson wants to succeed where many of his predecessors failed, he must convince the skeptical public that his proposals will work for them.

In Germany, there is a broad understanding that “long-term care is a social risk that requires social protection,” LSE said. “This is not a partisan position.”

In Britain, on the other hand, previous attempts to reform social awareness have run aground on party politics.

“In 2010, the Labor government was accused by the Tories of planning a ‘death tax’ with proposals for levies at the time of death to fund universal national care services,” Independent report.

“In turn, Conservative Theresa May was greeted with hostility after the 2017 party election manifesto included a proposal for more people to pay for social care by selling their homes. The policy was labeled as a ‘dementia tax’ by the opposition. “

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What is conventional plasma therapy and can it treat coronavirus? | Instant News


Sarah L Caddy, clinical research fellow in viral immunology at Cambridge University, about possible treatments for new coronaviruses.

Many options are being explored to treat Covid-19. This includes new drugs specifically designed to target SARS-CoV-2, as well as “repurposed” drugs – that is, existing drugs that are designed to treat different diseases.

So far the oldest treatment tested is plasma healer. This involves using blood plasma from people who have recovered from CovidD-19 and putting it in patients who currently have the disease.

Plasma is the liquid part of the blood that remains when all red and white blood cells and platelets have been removed. More than one hundred years ago Emil Behring was awarded the first Nobel Prize for physiology and treatment for his work which shows that plasma can be used to treat diphtheria.

We now know that the main component of plasma treating infections is antibodies. Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that are very specific to any infection that someone has experienced before. They are produced in large numbers by B cells from our immune system to bind to the invading virus and then target it to be destroyed.

That the concept of vaccination relies on stimulating antibody production for unmet infections. Conversely, using convalescent plasma involves the transfer of antibodies from a donor who has installed an immune response, thereby offering immediate (but temporary) protection to the recipient.

Convalent plasma has been tested as a therapy in previous coronavirus outbreaks. Several observational studies were conducted during the first SAR epidemic in 2003. These all reported improvement in patients after receiving plasma recovered, and there was no evidence of serious complications. However, this study is largely a case report – not the most reliable type of evidence.

Convalescent plasma treatment was also tested for Ebola virus plague in 2013-2016. Some case reports show promising results, but again, large-scale randomized trials are not carried out. Still, that World Health Organization publish guidelines for the proper use of plasma from patients who recover.

Full handful preliminary report where Covid-19 patients have been treated with convalescent plasma has garnered much interest. Each has concluded that plasma therapy is safe and improves patient outcomes, but there are significant limitations for each of these studies.

To begin with, each study only treated a maximum of ten patients. Also, there were no control patients (people who were not given plasma recovery), so it was not possible to know how patients might respond without treatment.

Fortunately, more extensive research is now on track to provide strong evidence for or against the use of recovered plasma. All over the world is over 60 clinical trials actively recruiting Covid-19 patients to study the effects of convalescent plasma.

Patients are usually given about 500ml of intravenous plasma, and their progress is then carefully monitored. Many studies use plasma from uninfected patients as a trial placebo group, to ensure that each benefit identified is specific for the SARS-CoV-2 antibody.

Although convalescent plasma has the potential to be a useful treatment, there are some theoretical concerns that will keep all clinical trial teams on alert. First, artificially giving antibodies can make the infection worse. This is caused by a rare phenomenon called antibody-dependent increase (ADE).

Antibodies that bind to viruses can be taken by cells that express antibody receptors. This can allow the virus to enter cells that are not normally susceptible to infection, which can increase the number of new virus particles. This classically occurs in dengue infection, but is also a concern for the MERS corona virus.

The second theoretical risk is that previously formed antibodies can block the body’s own immune response to respond adequately. We know this happens with maternal antibodies; antibodies that are transmitted naturally from mother to child can prevent the baby from responding properly to vaccinations. This is why most child vaccines begin after the age of eight weeks.

How secure is plasma convalescence? It is important to remember that there are some potential risks with receiving plasma from other people. Mild side effects include developing fever or allergic reactions, such as rashes and itching sensation. Plasma must also be compatible with the recipient’s blood type to prevent transfusion reactions.

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Even more serious is the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. Fortunately, the risk can be minimized by filtering out donors for infection. For example, in the United Kingdom, blood donors are concentrated by the NHS, and all donors are closely examined for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B, C, E, and HTLV-1 (human T-cell leukemia virus 1) to ensure minimal risk of transmission of this infection.

Another limitation to consider is that the elderly population with weak heart or lungs (those at high risk from Covid-19), may not tolerate receiving large amounts of plasma. This can lead to a complication known as “transfusion related to excessive circulation”.

Despite its 100-year history, convalescent plasma has never been thoroughly tested for use as a viable therapy. Whatever the results of many clinical trials that are being carried out, we will definitely learn a lot about the most efficient ways to collect, process and use recovery plasma safely.

Finger crossed for positive results for conventional plasma use on Covid-19. Hopefully, our better understanding of plasma recovery will also benefit future pandemics.

Sarah L. Caddy, clinical research fellow in viral immunology, University of Cambridge

This article has been republished from Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read original article.

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Coronavirus is associated with inflammatory diseases that rarely occur in children – this is what we know | Instant News


Jeremy Rossman, honorary senior lecturer in the field of virology and president of Research-Aid Networks, University of Kent, about rare diseases in children who may have a relationship with coronavirus.

The British Pediatric Intensive Care Society Society sends a warning in April 27 about increasing cases severe illness related to Covid-19 in children. Since a long time ago, 19 cases has been identified in children in the UK and 100 cases has been identified in five other countries (US, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland). This is a new situation and little information is available at this time, although there are very few cases and most Covid-19 infections in children are still very mild.

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