Tag Archives: scientists

Algorithm discovers hidden connections between paintings at the Metropolitan Museum | Instant News


A team from MIT helped create an image retrieval system to find the closest matches to paintings from different artists and cultures.

The machine learning system developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was inspired by an exhibition at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. The exhibition featured Francisco de Zurbarán’s “San Serapion” (left) and Jan. “Endangered Swan” by Jan Asselijn.

Image courtesy of MIT CSAIL.

People often see art as the greatest journey of the past, consolidating a moment in time and space. Let us temporarily escape from the current beautiful vehicles.

With an endless treasure trove of paintings, the connections between these artworks from different times and spaces are often overlooked. Even the most knowledgeable art critic cannot absorb millions of paintings over thousands of years, and cannot find unexpected similarities in themes, themes and visual styles.

To simplify this process, a team of MIT researchers Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and Microsoft created an algorithm to discover hidden connections between paintings between the Metropolitan Museum of Art (Metropolitan Museum) and the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.

Inspired by the National Museum’s special exhibition “Rembrandt and Velaquez”, the new “MosAIc” system understands the “closeness” of the two images through an in-depth network and discovers paired works from different cultures, artists and media Or “similar works”. In that exhibition, the researchers were inspired by an unlikely but similar pairing: Francisco de Zurbarán’s “San Serapion The Difficulty” and Jan Arthurlin (Jan Asselijn) “The Threatened Swan”, these two works portray a profound altruistic scene with a creepy visual similarity.

CSAIL doctoral student Mark Hamilton said: “These two artists have no correspondence or encounters in their lives, but their paintings suggest that the rich, latent structure is the basis of their work.” Mosaic. “

To find two similar paintings, the team used a new image search algorithm to find the closest match for a specific artist or culture. For example, in response to a query about “which instrument is closest to the painting of this blue and white dress”, the algorithm retrieves an image of a blue and white porcelain violin. These works are not only similar in style and form, but also stem from the extensive cultural exchange of porcelain between the Dutch and the Chinese.

Hamilton said: “The image retrieval system allows users to find images that are semantically similar to the query image. They are the basis of reverse image search engines and many product recommendation engines.” Limiting the image retrieval system to a specific subset of images can be visually relevant. Relationships in the world generate new insights. Our goal is to encourage people and creative artifacts to reach new heights. “

How does this work

For many people, art and science are irreconcilable: one is based on logic, reasoning, and proven truth, the other is based on emotion, aesthetics, and beauty. But recently, artificial intelligence and art have a new flirtation, and this flirtation has become more serious in the past decade.

For example, a large part of this work previously focused on using AI to generate new art. Have Gao Gan Project developed by researchers at MIT, NVIDIA, and the University of California, Berkeley; previous work by Hamilton and others GenStudio Project; even art sold with AI at Sotheby’s $ 51,000.

However, the purpose of MosAIc is not to create new art, but to help explore existing art. A similar tool, Google’s “X resolution“Find the art path connecting the two artworks, but the difference of MosAIc is that it only needs one picture. It does not find the path, but finds the connection in any culture or media that the user is interested in, such as Find the shared art forms “Anthropoides paradisea” and “Seth Kills the Snake, Hibis Temple of Amun”.

Hamilton pointed out that building their algorithm is a difficult task because they hope to find images that are not only similar in color or style, but also similar in meaning and theme. In other words, they want dogs to be close to other dogs, people to be close to other people, and so on. To achieve this goal, they explored the internal “activation” of the deep network for each image in the open access collections of the Metropolitan Museum and the National Museum. How do they judge image similarity, that is, the distance between the “activations” of this deep network commonly called “functions”.

In order to find similar images between different cultures, the team used a new image search data structure called a “conditional KNN tree”, which combines similar images into a tree structure. To find a close match, they start with the “trunk” of the tree and then follow the most promising “branch” until they are sure to find the closest image. The data structure improves on its predecessor by allowing the tree to be quickly “pruned” for a specific culture, artist or collection, thereby quickly responding to new queries.

Hamilton and his colleagues are surprised that this method can also be used to help discover the problems of existing deep networks, which are related to the recent emergence of “deep fakes.” They apply this data structure to find areas where probabilistic models (such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) that are commonly used to create advanced products) crash. They called these problematic areas “blind spots” and pointed out that they gave us a deep understanding of how to bias GANs. This blind spot further shows that even though most fakes can deceive humans, GANs still have difficulty representing specific areas of the data set.

Test MosAIc

The team evaluated the speed of MosAIc and how close it is to human intuition for visual analogies.

For the speed test, they want to ensure that their data structure provides value in simply searching the entire collection through fast, powerful searches.

In order to understand the degree of coordination between the system and human intuition, they produced and released two new data sets for evaluating conditional image retrieval systems. A data set poses a challenge to the algorithm, even after it is “styled” using neural style transfer methods, images with the same content cannot be found. The second data set challenges the algorithm to recover English letters in different fonts. In less than two-thirds of the time, MosAIc was able to recover the correct image from the “haystack” of 5,000 images at a time.

Hamilton said: “Looking forward, we hope this work will inspire others to think about how information retrieval tools can help other fields such as art, humanities, social sciences, and medicine.” These fields are full of information that has never been processed using these technologies. Can bring great inspiration for computer scientists and domain experts. This work can be extended with new data sets, new query types, and new ways to understand the connections between works. “

Hamilton wrote the paper on MosAIc together with Professor Bill Freeman and MIT students Stefanie Fu and Mindren Lu. The MosAIc website was established by MIT, Fu, Lu, Chenbang Chen, Felix Tran, Darius Bopp, Margaret Wang, Marina Rogers and Johnny Bui in the Microsoft Garage winter internship program.

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Genetic secrets of the bat “superpower” identified | Instant News


Today ferrumequinum the greater horseshoe bat

First, the raw material of genetic material that codes for bats unique tools and powers such as the ability to fly, to use sound to move silently in complete darkness, to survive and endure deadly diseases and resist aging and cancer – has been fully revealed and published in Nature.

Bat1Ka global consortium of scientists led by Dr. Sonia Verne and Professor Emma Tealing, devoted to sequencing the genomes of each of the 1,421 living bat species has generated and analyzed six high-precision bat genomes, which are ten times bigger than any bat, genome, published today in order to begin to uncover the “bats” with their unique traits.

Senior author Dr. Sonia Vern co-founder, Director of bat-1K, the max Planck Institute for psycholinguistics and the newly appointed UKRI officer of the University of St Andrews, said: “this is the first reference-quality genome of bats. Having such a complete and well-annotated genomes allowed us an unprecedented understanding of the genetic and evolutionary abilities is seen in bats”.

Professor Emma Teeling, University College Dublin, co-founder and Director Bat1K and senior author of the study, added: “Given these fine genome of a bat, we can now better understand how bats carry viruses, and slow the aging process, and evolved flight and echolocation. These genomes are the tools required to identify genetic solutions to turned into bats, which, ultimately, can be used to mitigate human aging and disease.”

Photo By Daniel Whitby
Today ferrumeqinum the greater horseshoe bat

To create these bat genomes, the team used new technology to sequence the DNA of a bat and has developed new methods to gather these fragments in the correct order and to identify the genes present.

The team compared the genomes of bat 42 other mammals to contact the unresolved question of where the bats are in the mammalian tree of life.

With the help of new phylogenetic methods and complex molecular data, the researchers found the strongest support for bats, being most closely related to a group called Ferreuungulata, which consists of predators (which includes dogs, cats and seals, among other species), lizards, whales and ungulates (hoofed mammals).

To identify the genomic changes that contribute to the unique adaptations found in bats, the team systematically searched for gene differences between bats and other mammals, identifying regions of the genome that have evolved differently in bats and the loss and genes that might drive bats unique features.

The researchers also found evidence that the ability of bats carry the virus is reflected in their genomes. Exquisite genomes revealed a “fossil viruses”, the evidence to survive after a viral infections, and showed that the genome of the bat contained a greater diversity than other species that genomic record of historical tolerance to viral infection.

Given the quality of the bat genome, the team identified and tested several non-coding regulatory regions, which can adjust the key of the bats of evolutionary innovations.

These are just the beginning of the work of the group. The remaining ~live bat exhibit 1400 species of incredible diversity in ecology, longevity, sensory perception and immunology, and many questions still remain regarding the genomic basis of these impressive features. The purpose Bat1K to answer these questions, as more and more bat genomes sequenced, further revealing the genetic basis of “bats” a rare and amazing superpowers.

Photos Oliver Farcy
Greater mouse eared bat

Professor Eugene Myers, Director of the max Planck Institute of molecular cell biology and genetics and Center for systems biology, Dresden, Germany, lead author, said: “using the latest modern technologies of DNA sequencing and new computational methods for such data, we are 96-99% on each bit of the genome at the chromosome level reconstruction of unprecedented quality akin to, for example, the current genome reference, which is the result of more than ten years of intensive “finishing” work. As such, these bat genomes provide an excellent basis for experimentation and evolutionary studies of the fascinating bats of abilities and physiological properties.”

Dr. Michael Hiller, Max Planck head of the research group of the max Planck Institute of molecular cell biology and genetics in Dresden, the max Planck Institute for physics of complex systems, and Center systems biology, Dresden, senior author of the study: “our genome scan detected hearing loss genes, which may contribute to echolocation that bats use to navigate and hunt in complete darkness. Additionally, we found expansion of anti-viral genes, a unique selection on the immune genes, and the loss of genes involved in inflammation in bats. These changes may contribute to bats exceptional immunity and indicates their tolerance of coronaviruses”.

This study was partially funded by the max Planck Society, European research Council, Irish research Council and the program of the human frontier science, the NSF.

Dr. Vern to bring in £1.5 m seven-year study in the University of St Andrews on the way bats communicate, to shed light on the evolution of human language.

Funding announced UKRI future leaders scholarships the scheme will allow Dr. Sonia Verne to study the vocalizations of bats, and by matching them with other mammals, to more clearly understand mechanisms by which human language evolved.

£1.5 m grant will Fund the first four years of the seven-year project and further funding to follow.

Future Leaders Scholarships this £ 900 million, helping to establish the careers of world-class research and innovation through the leaders of UK business and academia.

Photo Brock Sheri
Phyllostomus discolor pale spear nose bat

Public Release/. View in full here.

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Social scientists take a vow to play an effective role in pandemic | Instant News


Islamabad : leading academics, parliamentarians and experts decided to undertake a joint effort to raise awareness and preventive measures about COVID-19, the development of research programmes, promotion of values of peace, tolerance, harmony, the conversion of the pandemic in the possibility of working on “out of the box” solutions, mental health and other issues during the webinar, held on Saturday on the theme ‘the Role of social scientists during a pandemic’, which was organized at the University consortium for promotion of social Sciences Pakistan in collaboration with the government College University Lahore and University of Lahore.

The speakers also stressed on the continuation of close cooperation between social scientists and managers to develop an effective mechanism for learning from best practices and the use of others experience and knowledge.

They stressed that social scientists, opinion leaders and opinion leaders play a key role, as they have a wider view of society and pulse of the people. They can provide a way forward with optimism to overcome the current challenges and turning them into opportunities. They also praised the efforts and role in a University consortium for the initiation of a number of useful initiatives and programmes in close cooperation with its member agencies and partners, especially in COVID-19.

Webinar speakers included Senator Mushahid Hussain Sayed, Chairman of the standing Committee of the Senate of Pakistan on international relations, Professor, Dr. Muhammad Qutb Minar, Pro rector, a great University Lahore, Professor Dr Yousuf Khushk, Chairman Pakistan Academy of letters, Zafarullah Khan, former Executive Director of the Pakistan Institute for parliamentary services, MIAN Imran Masood former education Minister Punjab, Vice-Chancellor of University of South Asia, Professor Asghar Zaidi, Vice Chancellor government College University Lahore, prof Dr. Syed Tahir Hijazi, Vice-Chancellor of the Muslim youth of the University in Islamabad, Professor Fateh Muhammad Burfat, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sindh between jām Shoro, Professor Rukhsana Kausar, Vice-Chancellor of the government College women University, Sialkot, Professor Uzma Quraishi, Vice Chancellor women University Multan, Professor, Dr. Razia Sultan, Vice-Chancellor Shaheed Benazir Bhutto women University Peshawar, prof Dr Muhammad Saleem Mazhar, rector of the University of Punjab and Pakistan Nadeem Akbar Director AIPS and Professor Rauf I Azam, the rector of the University of Lahore, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of education Lahore moderated the session.

Murtaza Noor, national coordinator of the University consortium for promotion of social Sciences Pakistan expressed his gratitude and assured the correct execution and expert advice in the webinar.

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From the autumn classes online, received in the transmission to worry about social transformation | Instant News




Incoming transfer students Penn are required to live on campus.
Credit: Kylie Cooper

While incoming transfer students Penn are grateful for the opportunity to start on campus in the fall, many fear that distance education would prevent social integration with peers and teachers.

As first years, foam 196 incoming transfer students are required to live on campus in the College houses. While they will be present on campus in the fall, incoming transfers are concerned that online instruction and Campus Compactthat restricts personal meetings and extracurricular events less than 25 people will make the transition to University much harder than usual.

Rising College sophomore Oliver Kaplan, who transferred from Bates College, said he decided to transfer to Penn because he felt that his previous College lacked a sense of community. However, he met with disappointment, knowing that the fall semester at the University will be held mostly onlineand now wants the opportunity to take fall semester was only available to him. Incoming transfer students may not take vacation during the fall semester if they are to move their start date to fall 2021.

Kaplan said he plans to transfer his classes this semester to enroll in several courses that have the class size to 25 pupils, and to defer more of the lecture classes for the future. Some classes less than 25 students may be held in person, allowed the space in large rooms.

He said he wants the University informs students that smaller classes are finally held in person for help making into the jaws of choice, of course.

Growth College sophomore Aarushi Parikh, who were transferred from Rutgers University, said that although she understands that Penn opted for a hybrid model of in-person and remote campus life for health and safety, she regretted that her first year at uni will be very different from others that came before it.

Parikh said she would miss sitting in a large lecture hall, and make friends with classmates.

“I don’t feel like I missed a lot of experience, but there is a certain experience that cannot be replaced,” she said.

However, Parikh added that she was grateful that I could to start the year on campus and not a semester. Two of her classes up to 25 students, and she hopes that they can be in man.

As Parikh, the growth of technical sophomore Mara RAO said she was relieved when she learned that Penn is not fully a semester. The biggest concern RAO for the fall semester whether or not she will be able to get involved in on campus studies, and if the laboratories on campus will be accepting new students.

RAO, who transferred from Vanderbilt University, is also disappointed that new student orientation will occur almostalthough she said she understands why the University made this choice.

With rising College sophomore Samira Reddy submitted your Deposit check in Pennsylvania in may, he worries about how the University will conduct the fall semester. Even if he lives on campus, said Reddy, he expects a more difficult time connecting with other students because of online learning, and social limitations of the student compact campus.

Reddy who transferred from the University of Texas at Austin, hopes that his writing seminar, which enrolls less than 25 employees, will have to be in person.

“I definitely plan to make the most out of my situation, whether online or not,” said Reddy.

Rising College sophomore Rebecca Nadler said she is grateful that she will be able to come to campus in the fall, and hopes to make friends through a series of small classes that can be conducted in person.

Nadler, who was transferred from Boston College after my freshman year, said she is pleased with the decision after Penn plans to spend fall semester.

“Despite everything that is happening around, and all unknown, I’m still very excited to start my journey in College, and I hope that even with these changes, experience Penn still feel the same,” said Nadler.

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Shrinking space for scientists who teach critical thinking | Instant News



Islamabad: last Saturday, Twitter was abuzz with discussions of scientists fired for their political beliefs. Tweet Dr. Ammar Ali Jan has caused this discussion. It was about his decision to quit the study at a Christian College Forman in Lahore. It was not something surprising to many who knew him; it was sad for them.

Two prestigious educational institutions in Pakistan Lahore – the government College University and Punjab University – have fired him because he allegedly instigated students; University of the Punjab went on to claim that his “fanning anti-Russian” sentiment. In four years he taught at three universities and no one can afford it, eating and arrests for inciting students, in addition. He had ample opportunity to study abroad after doing his doctorate at Cambridge University, but Ammar wanted to teach in public universities of Pakistan sector.

“After returning to Pakistan in 2016”, – he wrote, “I was committed to learning in the public University sector. I joined the government University College and later University of the Punjab. Both organizations fired me citing “national security” as a pretext”.He entered the College of FC, everything changed for him during the student March of solidarity“, where I was accused by the instigator. I was accused of sedition….Unknown people began to exert pressure on the administration of the FCC to dismiss me. I was invited by the rector, who told me to throw all public events as the FCC in the “sensitive” situation and cannot be disputed”.

Responding to the rector, said Ammar, he couldn’t refuse, as one of his disciples (Alamgir Wazir) was in jail, demanding the reform of education and students, whereas in the case of sedition was not completed against him (Ammar). How is he not moving from his position, everything began to change. His contract was revised, moving it from the Professor to visit the Department and finally he left. “It seems that the academic path for me in Pakistan can be more after the unfortunate end to the FCC”, – he wrote in the Twitter stream.

The reaction that followed was much revealing. Where different people shared their own teaching experiences and how they were removed, Professor of Economics at a prestigious Institute of business administration was amazed to read the episode Ammar is. Then he offered him a job at IBA. “[Please] come to Karachi and join our Institute…IBA provides the freedom and power to all our academics. Start on a new journey with a new spirit,” said Professor Ammar took his gesture, paying gratitude, and promised to visit Karachi. Later, Professor IBA deleted the tweet for reasons that could not be determined.

Other notable tweets were a reflection of the sorry academic Affairs, where teachers are disciplined for the duration of the contract. Where the contract Ammar was changed from assistant Professor visiting faculty, distinguished physicist and public figure faced such a problem and in the same institution. Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy was hired for a three year term as distinguished Professor of physics and mathematics at the FC College and later his contract was shortened to one year, he has already learned. The news could not obtain a version of the College as there is no designated spokesperson. Attempt to make a version for the case of Ammar from his head of Department has not produced results. Dr. Ryan Brasher was sent a text message seeking his opinion on the subject regarding Ammar College of FC, but he didn’t respond.

Mohammad Haneef, a well-known author and writer, reacting to the ouster Ammar said that he was “escorted” from Karachi Habib University, where he was visiting faculty. However, academic Affairs of University Dean, said in response that he was not shown the door. Instead, Chris Taylor said, It was a one year contract Haneef has expired and for which he taught at the University before. In April 2018, the University made headlines when he organized the visit was canceled just one hour before it needs to be. In addition, our guest speaker was forced to leave the campus security University despite the fact that he was there at the invitation of the University.

The government College University in Lahore, Ammar was not the only member of the faculty shown the door. A couple of people have been forced to resign. Dr. Amir Iqbal, a mathematician with a doctorate from the Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT), the University was forced to leave due to the humiliating employment contract in which he was forced to apply for an extension every year. He now teaches at Harvard University. Crime Amir: he dug Rs638 million Scam disclosure of the SSI paid fake the salaries of European professors. Some teachers came from Europe for 15 days and then left while many do not come first. Amir was asked to investigate the matter and he prepared instead of the 450-page report.

Zaigham Abbas, political science lecturer at the NEC, was the latest victim. He began teaching there, along with Ammar and both of them receive meager salaries Rs23000 per month each. A native of Gilgit-Baltistan, Zaigham joined the Academy of passion instead of going for CSS. Like Ammar, he was also popular amongst students and encourages them to think critically. His contract was extended every three years until February of this year. One morning he went to teach and found a teaching colleague. Zaigham said that his contract was not renewed. He drew Rs35000 per month at the time of his resignation.

News said Vice-Chancellor Dr SKU Asghar Zaidi. He said that different departments are independent in their decision-making. Talk about Dr Amir, he said it was the Council’s decision to ask him to appear before the selection Committee for appointment to a three-year term, but Amir didn’t want to. He said that he received an offer from Harvard and not to continue there, according to Dr. Zaidi. About Zaigham, he said he had to contact him. (Zaigham told the news that he tried to meet him several times and exchanged texts. VC denies). However, Dr. Zaidi has admitted that the contract was used many times as a tool against the teacher and what he’s trying to fix it by learning from more and more teachers.

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