Tag Archives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome

The cat catches the coronavirus from owners | Instant News


Cases of Pets Contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-cov-2) were registered since the beginning of the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19). Now the cat was the first animal in Britain to test positive after Contracting the virus from their owners.

The cat developed symptoms of shortness of breath. Dog owners took it to a veterinary clinic where it was initially suspected feline herpes virus, common respiratory infection in cats.

A sample from the cat tested positive for SARS-cov-2 in the framework of the research program at the University of Glasgow centre for virus research. This program aims to screen hundreds of samples for the presence of SARS-coronavirus-2 in the cat population of the country. The test was conducted in the Agency and health of plant and animal life in Weybridge, Surrey, on July 22.

The receptor ACE2 and human, illustration photo: Catherine Koh / Shutterstock In

Reverse zoonosis

Experts in health say that it is the first known human to cat transmission of SARS-cov-2 in the country, but that does not mean that the infection has not spread to people for their Pets.

Zoonoses is described as viral infections that jump from animals to humans, as coronavirusesthat generally occur in wild animals such as bats, camels and civets cats, among others. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-Cov), which come from civet cats and camels. The current pandemic coronavirus was claimed to come from dinosaurs that have been infected by bats.

Pangolin. Image credit: 2630ben / Shutterstock In

Pangolin. Image credit: 2630ben / Shutterstock In

On the other hand, reverse zoonosis, when the virus first infects people, and then turns to animals. Since the emergence of the novel pandemic coronavirus, reports of infections in Dogs in Hong Kong and even at a tiger in a zoo in the United States.

Siberian

Siberian “Amur” tiger in the Bronx zoo. Image Credit: Vladimir Korostyshevskiy / Shutterstock In

Spread from humans to animals

The American centers for control and prevention (CDC) says that is still unknown, whence came the present disease coronavirus, but said it may come from an animal, like a bat.

“At this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in the spread of the virus, which causes COVID-19. Based on the limited information currently available, the risk of spreading animal COVID-19 people is considered low,” the CDC said.

The health Agency added that more research is needed to shed light on how different animals can be affected COVID-19. As scientists try to learn more about the virus, it seems that it can be transmitted from people to animals in some situations.

“We are still learning about this virus, but it seems that it can be transmitted from people to animals in some situations, especially after close contact with a person sick with COVID-19,” the CDC explained.

The CDC also explained that cats, dogs and other animals can be infected with the novel coronavirus. However, he says that the experts don’t know all the animals that can be infected.

Animals and COVID-19

Three previous studies have discussed the risk of animal infection with SARS-coronavirus-2. In the study, researchers in the United Kingdom by the coronavirus can infect a broad range of animal speciesincluding dogs, cats, hamsters, rabbits, horses, goats, pigs, Buffalo, sheep, cattle, and lizards. These animals showed higher levels of viral entry.

The formation of syncytia following SARS-cov-2 spike expression. Effector cells expressing half of a dual luciferase-GFP reporter protein and SARS-cov-spike 2 were mixed with target cells expressing ACE2 proteins of the indicated nodes and the corresponding half of the reporter (see methods). Also the vector only control is enabled (pDISPLAY). Representative photomicrographs protein of GFP-positive syncytia formed as shown joint cultivation are. Images were captured using Incucyte live cell imager (Sartorius).

The formation of syncytia following SARS-cov-2 spike expression. Effector cells expressing half of a dual luciferase-GFP reporter protein and SARS-cov-spike 2 were mixed with target cells expressing ACE2 proteins of the indicated nodes and the corresponding half of the reporter (see methods). Also the vector only control is enabled (pDISPLAY). Representative photomicrographs protein of GFP-positive syncytia formed as shown joint cultivation are. Images were captured using Incucyte live cell imager (Sartorius).

Meanwhile, animals such as Turkey, chicken, and all kinds of bats supported lower levels of viral entry than the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).the

Another study downloaded in BioRxiv identified SARS-cov-2 target cells in different tissues, a cat, a hamster, and pangolin. The most remarkable discovery was the fact that SARS-coronavirus-2 target cells was a high proportion of SARS-cov-2 target cells in cats.

Finally, scientists from the Chinese Academy of agricultural Sciences, the Chinese center for control and disease prevention, says SARS-cov-2 was capable of to engage and ACE2 receptors in a wide range of animal speciessuch as the greater horseshoe bat, domestic cat, dog, pig, goat, and Malayan pangolin.

Susceptibility to SARS-cov-2 from HEK293T cells provided by the different 2 species ACE2 I. HEK293T cells were transfected the plasmids expressing 3 ACE2 and pointed. Cells were infected with 0.5 MVD SARS-cov-2 24 h after transfection, 4, and was discovered for the replication of SARS-cov-2 ELISA.

Susceptibility to SARS-cov-2 from HEK293T cells provided by the different 2 species ACE2 I. HEK293T cells were transfected the plasmids expressing 3 ACE2 and pointed. Cells were infected with 0.5 MVD SARS-cov-2 24 h after transfection, 4, and was discovered for the replication of SARS-cov-2 ELISA.

Understanding zoonosis and reverse zoonosis of the pandemic coronavirus could help scientists study the behavior of the virus, and the likelihood of transmission from animals which can make containing the virus more difficult.

The impact of the pandemic coronavirus has already exceeded 16.48 million, resulting in the deaths of more than 654,000.

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Swiss studies show how important time is in responding to COVID-19 | Instant News


A new study published on preprinted servers medRxiv* in July 2020 revealed the important nature of time as a factor in controlling mortality rates in the current COVID-19 pandemic. The background of this paper is the outbreak in Switzerland, where around 30,000 people were infected with acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more than 1,800 died from late February to early May 2020. This study shows that the introduction of NPI in March 2020 prevents thousands of virus-related deaths in Switzerland.

Study: Time is crucial: containment of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland from February to May 2020. Image credit: Roger Gantner / Shutterstock

Plague Course in Switzerland

The first case in this country came from a region adjacent to the area affected by Italy, but the disease quickly spread to the small country. In response to the outbreak, a series of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were quickly introduced, including the closure of elementary schools, shops selling non-essential items, and restaurants, and limiting the gathering of more than five people on March 20, 2020.

The epidemic showed a decline after the introduction of these measures in March. On May 10, 2020, restrictions were lifted. The paper by researchers at the University of Bern aims to show how the timing of NPI implementation affects the course of the epidemic and its results.

New model number of infections, hospitalized patients, intensive care unit (ICU) occupancy, and deaths during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland.  Solid lines show the maximum likelihood estimates of the model and shaded area according to the 95% prediction interval.  The model fits the data shown as white circles.  The number of reported infections (gray box) is shown for comparison.  The vertical dashed line shows the strengthening of social distance on March 17, 2020.

New model number of infections, hospitalized patients, intensive care unit (ICU) occupancy, and deaths during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland. Solid lines show the maximum likelihood estimates of the model and shaded area according to the 95% prediction interval. The model fits the data shown as white circles. The number of reported infections (gray box) is shown for comparison. The vertical dashed line shows the strengthening of social distance on March 17, 2020.

Potential Effects of Previous or Next NPI

The researchers used modeling to estimate the effects of various scenarios on the Swiss epidemic. That is, if the NPI has been applied a week before or a week later, how has the incidence of infection, the number of cases treated at the hospital, and mortality, changed?

This study is based on a population-based transmission model and includes a gradual introduction of the NPI. Previous studies have shown that this causes a sharp reduction in the amount of effective reproduction (Re) in Switzerland.

Reduction of effective reproduction number of Re during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland.  Solid lines show the maximum likelihood estimates of the model and shaded area according to the 95% compatibility interval.  We assume that the introduction of NPI sequentially results in a reduction in sigmoid transmission rates for about 2 weeks.  The vertical dashed line shows the strengthening of social distance on March 17, 2020.

Reduction of effective reproduction number of Re during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Switzerland. Solid lines show the maximum likelihood estimates of the model and shaded area according to the 95% compatibility interval. We assume that the introduction of NPI sequentially results in a reduction in sigmoid transmission rates for about 2 weeks. The vertical dashed line shows the strengthening of social distance on March 17, 2020.

Using public data about the daily number of confirmed cases, hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and virus-related deaths, the researchers found that initially, infections rose exponentially.

The researchers also estimate that the total number of infections is about ten times the number of cases diagnosed and confirmed initially. Then, the diagnosed cases account for around 20% of the total, but finally, after all the BOP is present, it drops again to around 10% of the total. The total estimate, therefore, amounts to around 264,000 cases.

Using a simulation of the previous NPI introduction, the model shows that around 2,000 deaths will occur if the NPI continues to negatively affect the number of deaths after May 10. If they had been implemented a week before, the model concluded that the peak number of hospitalizations would be much lower, at ~ 440, as would be the peak of ICU occupancy and death, respectively at ~ 88 and 400.

If the NPI is introduced a week later, these numbers will increase substantially, with a peak inpatient number of around 10,200, peak ICU occupancy of 1,900, and deaths of more than 8,000 each.

Doubling Time Triples with NPI

Current studies show that the effective reproduction rate (Re) fell from about 2.6 at the beginning to 0.64, which corresponds to a doubling time of about 3 days and 9 days at the start of the epidemic and post-lockdown phase, respectively. This underlines the urgency of the initial NPI in containing the spread of the virus.

The researchers commented, “One week of exponential increase in new infections during the spread of the initial epidemic requires 3.1 weeks of ‘locking’ to reduce the number of infections to the same level.”

Implications of this Study

This is the first study to analyze the possible effects of counterfactual scenarios regarding changes in the timing of NPI implementation. This finding is partly supported by lower mortality in Austria, which reported its first few cases at the same time as Switzerland, and who also fell victim to the spread from neighboring Lombardy, in Italy. However, the initial and strict introduction of the NPI within one week of the first case led to a reduction in the number of deaths.

In addition, the researchers showed that the high peak ICU occupancy rate of nearly 2,000 that could potentially result from a one-week delay in the NPI might flood the national health system, because the effective capacity of the ICU in Switzerland was only around 1,275 in April 2020.

In summary, this study concludes, “Our study illustrates that time is the most important when it comes to outbreak responses. We point out that while previous implementation of the NPI in Switzerland would result in a much lower number of cases and deaths being treated in hospitals, the steps taken succeeded in preventing the much higher morbidity and mortality burden associated with SARS-CoV-2. “

Because one week of exponential virus spread requires three weeks of locking to bring the number of daily cases back to their original level, the delay not only increases the number of deaths but extends the locking period. Therefore, the adoption of a stringent NPI will reduce the social and economic burden of these measures. Second, there are significant differences in the number of infections in various cantons, and this might indicate that new local outbreaks might be limited to separate areas.

* Important Notification

medRxiv publishing initial scientific reports that are not reviewed by colleagues and, therefore, should not be considered conclusive, guiding clinical practice / health-related behaviors, or treated as pre-existing information.

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SARS-cov-2 serological test for 50 cents a sample! | Instant News


Given the continued and alarming increase in both cases and deaths due COVID-19 around the world, scientists are still in search of effective tools for diagnosis of infection. One important way of testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-cov-2) – serology, but this requires a supply of high-quality recombinant viral antigens.

A recent study published in the preprints server medRxiv* in July 2020 shows that it is indeed possible. The development of this inexpensive, but reliable and sensitive test could change the face of preventive measures for COVID-19 limited resources.

Spike Antigen

SARS-coronavirus-2 spike antigen is one of the most important viral antigens, with researchers focusing on it for the production of vaccines, antivirals and serological tests. Serology is important to track cases, contacts to display, epidemiological surveillance and identification of asymptomatic patients, and identify the mechanism of antiviral immunity.

In Spike protein consists of two subunits, S1 and S2, which mediate receptor binding and membrane fusion, respectively. This allows the virus to penetrate the cell. This protein is a target for neutralizing antibodies, and the most common serological tests for SARS-cov-2 is an enzyme immunosorbent analysis (ELISA) – based protein.

This test is popular for its simplicity and cross-reactivity against the spike proteins of other coronaviruses in the current edition. Moreover, its intensity corresponds to the level of neutralizing antibodies.

Study: characterizing the low-cost IFA

This study was based on the identification of the key features that will allow you to develop an inexpensive test enzyme immunoassay, based on the immunological reaction of antibodies with protein. The goal was to produce a test that will allow large-scale screening for infection in low-income.

Researchers have focused mainly on reducing the cost of manufacturing test by developing optimum means of production of the antigen and making the necessary changes in the method of collecting antigen and sample processing. As a result, they were able to develop a test that will cost less than 50 cents per sample.

To Produce Recombinant Antigen

The researchers cultured SARS-coronavirus-2 protein is in a stable condition prior to the merge in cell culture using a method that allows protein to be expressed stably and as a constitutive feature. It was through the integration of the transgene into the genome of cells in culture.

This adaptation leads to increased scalability, and low cost recombinant proteins. They also used methods of cotransfection gene’s, as well as open source plasmid, which has a selection handle to avoid having to wait for a synthetic gene that needs to be built and sent through the pandemic-disrupted supply chain. Thus, the result is a recombinant cell line expressing high levels of protein were produced within 24 days of transfection and still shows steady expression up to 100 days.

This achievement gives the opportunity to “develop a less expensive, long lasting batch refeed or perfusion technology for cell culture,” according to researchers. They also succeeded in finding an inexpensive nutrient media to support cell growth and high level production of protein. Thus, they have developed a workflow using low-cost methods to achieve the goal of increasing the density of cells in culture with high s secretion of the protein.

Affinity purification chromatography (AC) used resin was more expensive than originally planned ultrafiltration/diafiltration filter (UF/DF), but has become necessary because of failure of the latter to remove smaller contaminants protein. However, they found that it can be used for more than 30 cycles, which reduces the cost of its use.

Then they created an ELISA to detect anti-s antibodies in human serum, plasma, and eluted whole blood samples, called s-ufrj website IFA. They set the amount of highly purified protein (from AC) needed to ensure legible results between negative and positive samples, 150 NG.

Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity

Then the website ufrj Elisa was used to test 210 is negative and positive serum samples, 66 samples from 38 symptomatic COVID-19 patients, 124 samples from the pandemic, and 20 of COVID-19 negative people. They received 122 out of 124 negative samples, the specificity 98%. In addition, the samples 53/66 were positive for IgG, to reduce the sensitivity to 80%.

For comparison, obtained from a commercial IgG rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), as approved by the Brazilian regulatory health organization, conducted by the Agency only 46% sensitivity.

Then they re-IgG-negative samples from S website ufrj ELISA IgM rapid test. They found that most samples that were negative for IgG and negative for IgM and IgG positive in the first test was IgM positive result of the proximate analysis as well. They, therefore, came to the conclusion that the two false-negative results from symptomatic patients, might have been samples collected early in the disease.

The increase in false positives with increasing duration of symptoms

When the website ufrj ELISA sample results were compared against the duration since symptom onset, they were more likely to be positive, as the duration increased, as a result of seroconversion some individuals who were PCR-positive, negative, scored on IFA for the first time, but positive for anti-s IgG antibodies for the second time. The level of seroconversion to Anti-s IgG antibodies with this test increased from 42% to 100% in direct proportion to the time of onset of symptoms, and from the tenth day, he was consistently above 90%.

An important finding was that the real test detects seroconversion earlier than the rapid test, which had a peak detection rate of 71%, even 20 days from the onset of symptoms.

They also tested the neutralizing ability COVID-19 patients with neutralization of plaque (MFN). Samples with high anti-s IgG antibodies titer was the highest titer of neutralization.

Simplify collection and storage of blood

The researchers also sought to overcome the traditional bottleneck of sample collection and processing in the clinical laboratory under refrigerated storage. They created a simple system for the collection of fingerprick blood in filter paper strips. The use of dried blood spot on filter paper showed comparable results of testing serum.

Dried blood samples (DBS) obtained by a prick of the finger with commercially available devices for piercing. 2.5 cm (W) x 7.5 cm (l) paper filter with three spots of blood from the same volunteers and a commercially available paper hole punching devices have been used DB (arrow), which eluted in the blood for ELISA testing.

The consequences

Thus, low cost of consumables, along with labor, transportation, and equipment costs, all must fit in a half dollar per test, which is approximately 200 times less than the tests currently used in the United States. Another advantage is that spots of blood in sealed plastic bags can be stored for 2 months at least, but still return accurate results serological.

Thus, this study concludes: “on the S website ufrj enzyme immunoassay, including the use of eluates from whole blood pricking her finger as samples, allows a wide serological survey of the population, irrespective of their geographical and socio-economic aspects”. It will be invaluable for the formation of public health strategies to prevent further waves of the pandemic.

*Important Notice

medRxiv publishes preliminary research reports that are not reviewed and therefore should not be considered as a convincing guide to clinical practice/behavior, health-related, or be considered as reliable information.

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Rapid genomic surveillance related to health care-SARS-cov-2 | Instant News


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-cov-2), which causes COVID-19 the disease has infected more than 13.7 million individuals and made more than 589,000 of lives around the world. The new virus was first detected in late December of last year in Wuhan city in China and has since become one of the most serious public health problems in recent years. One of the most visible effects of the pandemic on the health system. The highly contagious nature of the virus was the cause of the rapid spread of the infection among the population in almost all countries, and with thousands of becomes seriously ill, requiring hospitalization, intensive care and ventilation systems, health systems can not cope in developed and developing countries. Now scientists have invented a rapid test genomic sequencing for the identification and stratification of hospital-acquired infections.

Researchers from the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom published their findings in a study entitled “rapid implementation of SARS-cov-2 sequencing to investigate nosocomial COVID-19: a prospective study of genomic surveillance” in the latest issue The Lancet Infectious Diseases. This study COVID-19 genomics in the UK is funded by the Ministry of health and social security in the UK, research and innovation, and the Wellcome Sanger Institute.

Novel SARS-cov-2 coronavirus, coloured scanning electron micrograph of cells heavily infected SARS-coronavirus-2 virus particles (yellow) isolated from the patient sample. The black region in the image is the intercellular space between the cells. Image captured on an integrated research centre the composition (IRF) at Fort Detrick, Maryland. Credit: composition

Sequencing of viral strains – why is it needed?

SARS-cov-2 is an RNA virus multiplies rapidly, when it infects the host. As multiplies in the human body, it mutates, and strains become more diverse as time passes. Currently, the researchers write, the rate of mutation of the SARS-cov-2 virus “approximately 2·5 nucleotides per month.”

The researchers explained that the genomes of these virus strains need to be sequenced to obtain information on the infectivity and biology to develop drugs and vaccines against it. Genome sequencing can also identify the pedigrees of strains of viruses that circulate in the human population worldwide and their impact on the outcome of patients. Changes in SARS-cov-2 genome also show the success of the control measures and how the virus responds to events and control events.

Nosocomial infection

Nosocomial infections are those which may affect health workers and patients. Among the patients, it can affect the morbidity or illness, and mortality among health workers, in addition, it can also affect the “staff sickness and morality.” In any case, health-acquired infections can be detrimental to patient care, the researchers write. Thus, detection of health care acquire infections at the earliest is vital, they wrote. To date, more than 22,000 health workers have been infected health care-acquired infectious strains, and the world health organization (who) believes that these figures are grossly underestimated.

What has been done?

Research on surveillance of the genome of SARS-coronavirus-2 was reduced to 11th May 2020. The aim of this study was to use a rapid SARS-cov-2 sequencing in the epidemiology of these nosocomial infections and to determine the measures necessary to fight infection.

This was a prospective study in which the team “rapid SARS-cov-2 nanopores sequence” of the virus sample received from those who were positive in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The samples were from hospitals in the East of England. Sequencing was completed within 24 hours of receipt of samples. Each week was created overview reports as well as epidemiological and genomic data were General to look into the hospital COVID-19 cases and strains associated with them.

What have you found?

The study was conducted in the period from 13th March 24th April 2020, and a total of 5,613 patient samples were received during this time. Of them 1000 samples have been sequenced, and high quality genomic data was obtained from the 747 samples. Epidemiological and genomic data were integrated in 299 patients from the host hospital.

Scientists found that there were 35 clusters of viruses which were identical. These were obtained from 159 patients. They also noted that 58% or 92 of the 159 patients was a strong correlation of epidemiological data, while 20 percent or 32 cases of possible epidemiological links.

As a next step, the researchers presented their data to clinical infection control authorities and management team. Thus, the policy of infection control were changed, and reporting on patient safety have also been amended accordingly.

Conclusions and implications

The authors have successfully created a real-time surveillance of the genome of the virus and correlates with epidemiological findings. It can help to understand nosocomial infections wrote, as well as “identifying opportunities for targeted infection control measures to reduce nosocomial infections in the future.”The team signed up, “our results have important implications for national policy in the field of public health because they allow us to track and survey infections in hospitals and communities.”

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“Winter is coming,” warns UK experts COVID-19 | Instant News


Famous lines of “Game of Thrones“About approaching the dangers of this winter might prove accurate, say, scientists at a new report. The researchers stated that the second wave of infections could hit Britain this winter, and this would be worse than the first wave that claimed as many as 120,000 lives.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by acute coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) respiratory syndrome has gripped the world, and now experts warn that it is far from over. To date, the virus has infected 13.28 million people and claimed more than 577,000 lives worldwide.

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 This transmission electron microscope image shows SARS-CoV-2 – also known as 2019-nCoV, the virus that causes COVID-19. isolated from a patient in the US, emerging from the surface of cells cultured in the lab. Images were captured and colored at NIAID’s Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML) in Hamilton, Montana. Credit: NIAID

Current status in the UK

To date, there have been 292,931 cases of SARS-CoV-2 detected in the UK, and the infection has caused 45,053 deaths in the country. Over time the death rate and new cases have declined in the UK, and in July to date, there were 1,100 deaths, the researchers said. However, there may be no room for complacency that they warn.

According to the nation’s scientific advisors from Academy of Medical Sciences, which was asked to predict using modeling analysis, the worst is yet to come.

worst-case scenario that makes sense for the winter COVID-19 epidemic in the UK.  This model assumes that Rt rises to 1.7 from September 2020 to July 2021. (A) daily infections, (B) COVID-19 deaths caused in hospitals (ie excluding care homes and over-deaths in the community), (C ) general beds are occupied and (D) critical care beds are occupied.  Solid lines show medians, dark bands interquartile range, and pale bands at credible intervals of 95% (CrI).

The worst worst case scenario for the winter COVID-19 epidemic in the UK. This model assumes that Rt rises to 1.7 from September 2020 to July 2021. (A) daily infections, (B) COVID-19 deaths caused in hospitals (ie excluding care homes and over-deaths in the community), (C ) general beds are occupied and (D) critical care beds are occupied. Solid lines show medians, dark bands interquartile range, and pale bands at credible intervals of 95% (CrI).

Predictions and warnings

37 researchers in the team say that winter deaths can range between 24,500 and 251,000 in hospitals in the UK. This will be related to coronavirus infection. Deaths can peak between January and February 2021, they speculate.

These figures are predicted in a scenario where there are no locks or drugs available to treat any infection or vaccine to prevent COVID-19. At present, there is no specific drug that can be used to treat COVID-19, and the treatment is mainly supportive and symptomatic.

Around 120 vaccine candidates are currently undergoing clinical trials in various parts of the world, including one promising agent tested by Oxford researchers. However, nothing is available for use in humans.

Lockdown is the total closure of offices, businesses, schools and public transportation to break the transmission chain. The predicted number of deaths does not take into account locking, availability of effective drugs or vaccines during this winter.

Report

This report was requested by the chief British scientific advisor, Sir Patrick Vallance. The researchers write, “Risk … can be reduced if we take action immediately.” The actual status of a pandemic during winter is uncertain. However, what is clear is that the virus can survive better during winter and thus can spread easily among people who are trapped indoors during winter. The report states, “In cold, rainy or windy weather people are reluctant to open windows because they make cold winds and therefore they often have lower ventilation rates in winter. This can be a special challenge in modern airtight buildings that have a high level of infiltration very low for energy efficiency and for low income people who are trying to keep down heating costs. “

Burden on the health system

Thus, COVID-19 has a high level of infectivity but a low risk of complications and death. Only a small proportion of people – especially the elderly and those who suffer from other diseases, are at risk of complications.

These people may need intensive care and ventilation and are more at risk of dying. However, the spread of massive infections can also lead to extraordinary health care systems. This has been seen throughout Europe and in the United States for the past few months.

The NHS, too, is under pressure to meet the needs of thousands of patients. With the reduced number of COVID-19 cases, there has been a revival of flu cases and non-COVID-19 cases, the researchers explained.

The second wave of coronavirus infections can stretch the system to its capacity, they speculate. They say that there is a waiting list of non-coronavirus cases and this could reach 10 million by the end of this year if the situation with COVID-19 continues to worsen.

Expert talk

Prof. Stephen Holgate, a breathing specialist from the University Hospital of Southampton NHS Trust, is the chair of this report. He said in his statement, “This is not a prediction – but it is a possibility. Modeling shows that deaths could be higher with the new wave of COVID-19 this winter. But the risk of this event can be reduced if we take immediate action.”

He said that at this time, the numbers were low, and this could be “a window of critical opportunity to help us prepare for the worst that winter can throw at us.”

Co-author Prof. Dame Anne Johnson, from the Academy of Medical Sciences, said in a statement, “Facing these potential challenges, and after a difficult year, it will be easy to feel hopeless and helpless. But this report shows that we can act now to change things for the better. “He said,” COVID-19 has not disappeared. We need to do everything we can to stay healthy this winter. “

Health Secretary Matt Hancock has assured that the government already plans to handle the second wave this winter. A government statement said, “We remain vigilant, and the government will ensure the resources needed to avoid the second peak that will flood our NHS.”

Recommendations for prevention of the second wave

The report’s authors have made certain recommendations for overcoming problems with the second wave of the pandemic.

  • They urged further testing for infections and intensive tracking of all contacts of infected people to prevent the spread of infection.
  • A broad campaign to get more people vaccinated against seasonal flu to reduce the burden of flu cases this winter
  • Prevent transmission of coronavirus infection to other patients by making the area “corona-free” in the hospital.
  • Availability of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) for health care workers to prevent infection and spread.

Window to act now

The researchers added that at present, many of these predicted figures are based on a modeling system, and if the parameters are changed slightly, the number of deaths and hospitalization can change significantly.

However, researchers urge the general public and policy makers to prepare for the worst case scenario while hoping for the best. “There’s a lot to do, and we don’t have much time to do it,” Johnson said. “A window to action now.”

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Coronavirus immunity higher than previously thought, study finds | Instant News


Worldwide, more than 10 million people have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-cov-2). Not less than 5.39 million was restored, but the question of long-lasting immunity and protection from newly infected remains unclear.

Now, a team of researchers from the Karolinska Institute and Karolinska University hospital in Sweden found that the number of people immune to COVID-10 may be higher than previously thought, and that testing for antibodies can no longer be an appropriate tool to trace it.

The study is published in the Preprint bioRxiv* and not yet peer-reviewed.

Antibodies attack SARS-cov-2 virus, conceptual 3D illustration. Image Credit: Catherine Koh / Shutterstock In

T-cell immunity

Public immunity to the novel coronavirus that causes the disease coronavirus (COVID-19) may be higher than the antibody tests to recommend. It also means that people who have not tested positive for the antibodies can still show T-cell immunity to the coronavirus.

“T cells are a type of white blood cells, which are specialized in the recognition of virus-infected cells, and are an integral part of the immune system,” Marcus Buggert, associate Professor, Center for infectious medicine, Karolinska Institute and the study’s lead author, said.

“Preliminary analysis allowed us a detailed map in the T-cell response during and after COVID-19 infection. Our results show that approximately twice as many people developed T-cell immunity compared with those that we can detect antibodies”, he added.

In order to achieve results, the team conducted immunological analyses of samples from more than 200 people, most of whom were weak or absence of symptoms of viral infection. They included some patients admitted to the hospital Karolinska University. Those who donate blood in the 2020 and 2019 periods were also included in the control group.

The group noted that those who had a positive COVID-19 test not only those who showed T-cell immunity, but also exposed their family members who were asymptomatic (had no symptoms). Further, about 30 percent of donors who gave blood in may 2020, COVID-19 specific T cells, showing that the stakes are much higher than previous tests showed.

However, it is unclear what level of immunity is provided by T-cell response, although the antibody is believed to last from three to six months.

T-cell response corresponds to the measurement taken after immunization with approved vaccines against other viruses. Patients who experienced more serious COVID-19 has created a robust T-cell response and immune response. Meanwhile, although some patients showed only mild symptoms, in some cases, the antibody response cannot be detected, but they can still show significant T-cell response.

People can be created by immune response, but it disappeared and wasn’t detected in the tests.

“Our collective data set shows that the SARS-cov-2 is a durable memory T cell responses akin to those observed in the context of a successful vaccine, suggesting that natural exposure or infection can prevent repeated episodes of severe COVID-19 also in seronegative individuals,” the team writes in the paper.

The results of the study indicate that public immunity to SARS-cov-2 infection is potentially higher than the antibody tests showed. However, the group noted that T-cell assays difficult to perform. They are held in specialized laboratories.

“And more longitudinal studies should be performed as T-cells and antibodies, to understand how a strong immunity and how these different components COVID-19 immune related,” Buggert explained.

On a global scale

Pandemic coronavirus has reached another milestone, and now more than 10 million infected with SARS-coronavirus-2. The US reports the largest number of victims, resulting in the deaths of at least 128,000.

The United States more than 2.68 million confirmed cases, followed by Brazil with a staggering 1.44 million cases. Russia, India and the UK have reported high infection calls with more than 653,000 cases more than the 585,000 cases and more than 314,000 cases, respectively.

*Important Notice

bioRxiv publishes preliminary research reports that are not reviewed and therefore should not be considered as a convincing guide to clinical practice/behavior, health-related, or be considered as reliable information.

Source:

Journal reference:

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COVID-19 survivors should be screened for PTSD, experts warn | Instant News


Of coronavirus (COVID-19), caused by acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-cov-2) can be a stressful and traumatic experience. Patients who are seriously ill with a viral infection should be screened for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to their experiences in the struggle for life, experts in the field of mental health is recommended.

PTSD occurs in people who have experienced a traumatic event. Pandemic coronavirus can be a lot of stress, especially for those who were admitted and became critically ill due to an infection.

Psychologists and psychiatrists called for NHS to make sure that those who leave the hospital are screened and regularly evaluated. Those who show symptoms of PTSD should be treated to prevent recurring problems, such as nightmares.

In COVID trauma response working group, which included mental health experts from king’s College London, University College London, University of Oxford, the University of Haifa in Israel, and the NHS, said that those who were admitted in intensive care would be seriously ill enough to develop PTSD, and urged the government national screening program.

Image Credit: Chanintorn.I / shutterstock

What is PTSD?

PTSD develops in some people who have experienced shocking, scary or dangerous events, according to the National Institute of mental health.

Fear or fear is a natural occurrence after a traumatic experience. Fear causes many immediate changes in the body to protect itself from danger or to avoid it. In response to the terrible situation in the body aktiviziruyutsya “fight or flight” response to protect from harm.

In people with PTSD, they may feel stressed, scared or anxious, even when they are not in danger. Most people with this disorder may experience symptoms within three months of a traumatic or stressful event. Symptoms can last for more than a month and be severe enough to change the relationship, work and daily activities.

Symptoms include flashbacks, racing heart beat, terrible thoughts, terrible dreams, fear of places that resemble the experience, the sense of time, having bad seizures, and loss of interest in pleasurable activities, in particular. Getting early treatment is necessary to reduce the progression of the disease.

PTSD after COVID-19 infection

The team published clinical guidelines to inform NHS clinicians and planners on how to meet the needs of mental health COVID-19 survivors.

Health experts estimate that speech can go about tens of thousands of people at risk of PTSD because of the severity of their COVID-19 symptoms. More than 100,000 people were hospitalized due to an infection, and frightening experiences can have a negative impact on their mental health.

“Given the very scary and invasive nature Covid-19 intensive care experience, the risk of death and the potential for long-term medical complications, most affected by Covid-19 are likely to be exposed to a high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder and other stress-related mental health difficulties,” Dr. Michael Bloomfield of University College London, said.

He added that some of the functions and clinical manifestations unique to COVID-19 can adversely affect mental and psychological health of patients. Some factors can also exacerbate psychological consequences, such as isolation from loved ones during and after hospitalization.

When patients do not seek medical help at the right time, this can lead to chronic diseases and permanent mental health problems.

The team also believes that patients who have experienced serious symptoms coronavirus, or those who were seriously ill, are at high risk for problems with mental health. Overall, 40% of people discharged from the symptoms of the SIS report anxiety and 30% report symptoms of depression, and 20 percent report symptoms of PTSD.

“There may be a direct effect on mental health and the one that emerges over time. For example, the level of diagnosed mental health problems are present in 60% ill SARS-cov up to one year later. At 30 months, it was reduced by a third, including 25% with PTSD and 16% with depression. Survivors other outbreaks of coronavirus is also misleading, because of the fear of condemnation, contaminating others, again Contracting the diseases, and chronic fatigue syndrome”, wrote the experts in the manual.

The panel recommends that the NHS should actively monitor and ensure immediate treatment for patients who have experienced COVID-19 For mental health problems, including depression, anxiety disorder and PTSD. Must be national “screen and treat” service to access more patients, including in communities. In addition, patients who fell into critical condition due to the new coronavirus should have a regular consultation at least a year.

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The mob attacked the Karachi Civil Hospital after the death of a coronavirus patient | Instant News


The doctor has requested the deployment of security guards at the hospital

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PICTURE OF REPRESENTATIVE

PICTURE OF REPRESENTATIVE
PHOTO: AYESHA MIR / EXPRESS

KARACHI: Crowds rushed to Karachi Civil Hospital on Friday night after a coronavirus patient died during treatment and attacked on-duty medical staff.

At least 70 people entered the hospital and took the bodies of the deceased from the emergency room and also harassed and attacked the medical officers on duty, according to hospital management.

Doctors claim that patient swabs are taken according to standard operating procedures (SOP).

MS Hospital Dr. Khadim Qureshi confirmed the incident The Express Tribune that the police were asked to file an FIR against those involved in the attack.

“Doctors demand security. “It’s difficult for them to work in situations like this,” he added.

Another doctor who was on duty at the time, said the incident occurred at around 11 pm. He and other doctors on duty were also tortured and tortured. “This is the third time in a week,” he said.

The doctor stated that the police, who were stationed outside the hospital gates, did not help the medical staff. No arrests have been made yet and doctors have requested the deployment of Sindh Rangers for safety.

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SARS-CoV-2 is uniquely adapted to infect humans | Instant News


The new corona virus pandemic has sparked much debate about its origin, with some suggesting it might have been developed in a laboratory. Previous studies, however, mentioned that it was zoonotic, which means that the virus jumped from wild animals and found its way to humans.

Now, researchers claim that viruses have uniquely adapted to infect humans, demonstrating that virus theories planted in laboratories should not be completely excluded.

What is zoonotic disease?

Zoonotic disease or zoonosis is an infection caused by dangerous pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites that spread from animals to humans. Although many zoonotic diseases are common, some can cause serious illnesses, including hantavirus and corona virus.

Chengdu / China-Feb.2020: A security guard with a mask outside the local wet market. Image Credit: Amar Shrestha / Shutterstock

Animal pathogens can spread to human populations through direct contact with bodily fluids from infected animals, go to areas where animals live, be bitten by insects such as mosquitoes or fleas, and through the intake of contaminated food.

At present, the world is grappling with a new type of coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The exact origin of this virus cannot be confirmed, but bats as a reservoir of known corona viruses are at the top of the list of ‘most likely’.

Hong Kong - March 10, 2017: Bird market in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Image Credit: Christian Mueller / Shutterstock

Bird market in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Image Credit: Christian Mueller / Shutterstock

The new corona virus has made sick more than 5.4 million people worldwide and caused the death of more than 345,000 people.

Uniquely adapted to infect humans

In the new study available at arXiv preprint server*, which has not been reviewed by colleagues, the researchers point to many reasons why viruses become so well adapted to humans, such as convergent evolution after exposure to human cells, exposure to human cells very early in a pandemic, and rare mutations that combine two species genes. All this raises new questions about whether the origin of SARS-CoV-2 is natural or can occur in the laboratory.

“The devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised important questions about the origin of this virus, the mechanism of zoonotic transfer from exotic animals to humans, whether companion animals or those used for commercial purposes can act as a reservoir for infection, and a reason for large variations in susceptibility across animal species, “the researchers wrote in the paper.

Professor Nikolai Petrovsky, from the Faculty of Medicine and Public Health at Flinders University, who has spent decades developing vaccines against influenza, SARS animals, and Ebola, said that the findings of this study were very unusual, opening the possibility that the virus might have originated from laboratory experiments .

However, he said that at this point it was impossible to rule out the theory that the virus was created in cell culture experiments.

Research findings show that the virus was specifically designed for humans, whether it occurs naturally, by chance, or by intention, remains to be investigated.

He also added that the virus is not unusual from animal to human infections because it can enter the human body immediately. Other pathogens in the past that have jumped from animals to humans usually strengthen when they adapt to new hosts, but for SARS-CoV-2, it seems to be perfectly adapted to infect humans.

SARS-CoV-2 surge protein

The team used a structural silico homology modeling approach to characterize new coronavirus surge proteins, which predicted high affinity bonds to the human angiotensin 2 (ACE2) converting enzyme receptor.

SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE-2 receptors in human cells, early stages of COVID-19 infection, 3D conceptual illustration Credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE-2 receptors in human cells, early stages of COVID-19 infection, 3D conceptual illustration Credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

Usually, traditional lab-based methods are used, but they may take longer to produce results. On the other hand, the silico modeling method can help produce information about newly emerging pathogens more quickly, providing insight into their behavior and effects on the body.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE-2 receptors in human cells, the early stages of COVID-19 infection, a conceptual 3D illustration credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE-2 receptors in human cells, the early stages of COVID-19 infection, a conceptual 3D illustration credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

The team has found that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has the highest overall binding energy for human ACE2, more significant than all other tested species, including bats, the recommended viral source. Furthermore, the team revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is a highly adapted human pathogen. Pangolin, another animal source that claims an outbreak in Wuhan City in China, has the next highest binding affinity.

“Overall, the data show that SARS-CoV-2 is uniquely adapted to infect humans, raising the question whether it arose in nature by rare events or whether its origins lie elsewhere,” the team concluded.

The researchers added that given the seriousness of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, all efforts must be made to determine the source of the corona virus. It is important to determine whether coronavirus disease is caused by a natural coincidence, where it originates from a bat and jumps to humans through an intermediate host animal, or that COVID-19 has another origin.

The laboratory is growing

In the emergence of the novel coronavirus pandemic, many theories have emerged at the origin. One question raised a few months ago was whether the virus originated from the Wuhan laboratory, which is a Level 4 bio-safety laboratory that studies animal corona viruses.

The Wuhan Virology Institute has long isolated and obtained several coronaviruses from bats, according to laboratory director Wang Yanyi.

However, the director denied that the virus originated from the laboratory.

“After we examined the sample pathogen, we found it contained a new coronavirus. We have no prior knowledge, we also have never met, researched, or stored a virus, “he explained.

“The fact is, like others, we don’t even know about the presence of the virus, so how can it leak from our lab when we don’t have it?” she says.

Meanwhile, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said that false rumors that the virus was man-made were put there to stigmatize China. However, the country will be open to international participation to identify the source of SARS-CoV-2, as long as the investigation will be free from political interference.

Did SARS-CoV-2 adapt to humans long before the index case?

Other the latest study from Canada and the US suggests that severe acute coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) respiratory syndrome may have been adjusted before human transmission when it appeared at the end of 2019, which means that there may be progenitor populations still surviving from ancestral SARS-CoV-2 ancestors proficient. for human transmission and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) reappears.

* Important Notification

arXiv.org publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not reviewed by peers and, therefore, should not be considered conclusive, guide clinical practice / health-related behaviors, or be treated as established information.

Source:

Journal reference:

  • Piplani, S., Singh, P., Winkler, D., and Petrovsky, N. (2020). In silico comparisons of cross-species spike-ACE2 protein binding affinities; significance for the possible origin of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.06199

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Heparin can stop host cells that infect SARS-CoV-2 | Instant News


Researcher at Sheffield University has developed a new test that can be used to assess the attachment of viruses to host cells and to test the potential inhibitors of viral infections.

Using the test, the team was able to demonstrate the binding of a spike protein in acute coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) respiratory syndrome to human cells expressing the angiotensin 2 converting enzyme (ACE2).

Spike proteins are the main structure used by SARS-CoV-2 to bind ACE2 receptors expressed on target cells, before infecting them and potentially causing coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE-2 receptors in human cells, the initial stage of COVID-19 infection. Illustrated credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

The researchers also found that incubating cells with unfracted heparin stopped the surge of proteins that bind them.

The pre-printed version of paper can be accessed on the server bioRxiv*, while this paper underwent peer review.

SARS-CoV-2 infection mechanism

On binding to ACE2, the spike protein undergoes proteolytic division of the host cell into two subunits: S1, which contains receptor binding domains (RBD) and S2, which allow fusion with the host cell membrane and virus infusion.

“Serine host cell surface protein, TMPRSS2 [transmembrane serine proteinase 2]”It was also thought to be involved in virus entry and it was proposed to split S1 and S2, which led to the activation of the fusion machine,” wrote Peter Monk and colleagues.

The new test uses cells that express ACE2 and TMPRSS2

To investigate SARS-CoV-2 that binds to host cells, the team developed a new test using a transitional urinary bladder RT4 carcinoma cell line, which expresses ACE2 and TMPRSS2.

They found that the intact recombinant form of the viral surge protein containing both S1 and S2 (S1S2), but not only in the S1 domain, binds strongly to RT4 cells in a temperature-dependent manner.

The binding activity increased sharply at 37 ° C, indicating that proteolytic cleavage might be involved, the team said.

Are there other mechanisms for virus entry?

Monk and colleagues say that most cell types only express ACE2 levels that are low enough, suggesting that the surge protein might also interact with other receptor sites to get virus entry.

Certain viruses such as herpes simplex are known to bind to the host glycosaminoglycan called sulfuric deposits, the team said.

In addition, a study by one group suggested that soluble glycosaminoglycan heparin could inhibit the entry of SARS CoV-2 into “Vero” cells – cell lines derived from monkey kidney epithelium.

“These authors also demonstrated that heparin can interact with recombinant S1 RBD and cause conformational changes, leading to the suggestion that SARS-CoV-2 might use sulfate liver hosts as an additional site for attachment during infection,” the researchers wrote.

Unfracted heparin completely stops the bond

Given that the new test seems to mimic some features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the researchers used it to test the effect of incubating RT4 cells with heparin at 37 ° C.

The team reports that unfrracted heparin (UFH) actually inhibits the binding of S1S2 cells to RT4.

Treating cells with two low molecular weight heparin (LMWHs) that has been used clinically also inhibits binding, but only partially and not as strongly.

“This shows that heparin, especially the non-diffracted form, can be considered to reduce the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 by inhibiting ongoing viral infections,” wrote Monk and the team.

Can spike proteins also bind to the host cell’s sulfate supply?

The authors say the interaction they observed between heparin and protein spike suggests that it might also bind to sulfate liver cells.

To test this hypothesis, they treated RT4 cells with a mixture of heparinase I and III, enzymes that degrade sulfate molecules, before testing the binding of S1S2.

Treatment did not result in a significant reduction in RT4 cell binding, indicating that sulfate exposure did not play a significant role in the attachment of the SARS-CoV-2 surge protein to host cells:

“Although our data support UFH inhibitory activity, it does not support the notion that sulfate deposits are very important for viral infections,” the team wrote.

What are the implications of this research?

The researchers say that LMWHs, which have been used to treat COVID-19 patients and have been shown to improve results, are much smaller than UFH and have a more predictable pharmacokinetics.

Monks and colleagues argue that their research shows that previous use of heparin should be considered when a viral infection is still an important factor in influencing the severity of the disease.

“The use of UFH rather than LMWH must also be considered, although we note that the administration and safety profile of UFH might prevent this in some cases,” they added.

Finally, the researchers said their newly developed flow cytometric test to assess the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the host cell supports the previous findings that heparin can inhibit viral attachment to monkey kidney epithelial cells.

“Our new test could be the first screen to be useful for new inhibitors of coronavirus infection,” concluded the team.

* Important Notification

bioRxiv publishing initial scientific reports that are not reviewed by colleagues and, therefore, should not be considered conclusive, guide clinical practice / health-related behaviors, or be treated as pre-existing information.

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