Tag Archives: stroke

Ultraprocessed Foods Again Associated with Increased CVD, Death | Instant News


Yet other studies have linked consumption of ultraprocessed foods, or “junk” foods, with poor health outcomes.

In a longitudinal analysis of more than 22,000 men and women from southern Italy, those consuming the most ultraprocessed foods (UPF) had the highest risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes of death, likely mediated through a high-sugar diet, the researchers said.

High UPF consumption in this Mediterranean cohort was associated with a 58% increased risk for CVD mortality and a 52% higher risk of death. ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular causes, regardless of known risk factors for CVD, even among individuals following a Mediterranean diet.

The findings “should serve as an incentive to limit UPF consumption and encourage natural or minimally processed foods, as recommended by several national nutrition policies,” Marialaura Bonaccio, PhD, Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS NEUROMED, ​​Pozzilli, Italy, and colleagues. writing. The result published online December 18 at American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Earlier this year, as reported by Medscape Medical News, the researchers found a lot of evidence that obesity epidemics and an increased incidence of chronic conditions are associated with increased intake of UPF.

A study conducted in a European cohort found that adults whose diets included more UPF and beverages, such as ice cream, soda, and hamburgers, were more likely to develop CVD or die sooner than other people who had a healthier diet.

As previously reported by theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology, among French adults who had a 10% higher intake of UPF and drink, rates of CVD, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease were 11% to 13% higher over a period of about 5 years.

Likewise, university graduates in Spain who consumed more than four servings of UPF and drinks every day were 62% more likely to die from any cause for about a decade than those who consumed less than two servings per day.

Where’s the food?

The actual food at UPF is minimal. The NOVA classification provides 4 main classes of food and beverage, the last one being represented by the ultra processed food group (UPF). It consists of products (e.g. snacks, drinks, and ready-to-eat food, ‘made mostly or entirely from substances extracted from food or derived from food constituents with little, if any whole food, which often contain flavors, colors, and other additives. that mimic or enhance the sensory qualities of food or culinary preparations made from food, ‘”wrote Bonaccio and colleagues.

Such food is very convenient, tasty, inexpensive and has a long shelf life. They are highly competitive with foods that are naturally ready to eat and freshly prepared dishes and meals, add the authors.

Researchers performed a longitudinal analysis of 22,475 men and women (mean age, 55 years; range, 43-67 years) recruited from the Moli-sani Study, a population-based cohort of men and women aged 35 years and over in the Molise region of Italy. south, between 2005 and 2010. Participants were followed for 8.2 years.

Food intake was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire; The UPF is defined using the NOVA classification according to the level of processing.

The UPF intake is categorized as a quartile of the ratio of the UPF to total food consumed.

Overall, study participants reported a median of 10% (interquartile range, 6.6% – 14.6%) of food intake as UPF and a total of 181.5 g / day of UPF intake.

The food that gave the biggest contribution to the total UPF consumed was processed meat, which was 19.8% of the UPF intake; pizza (16.8%); and cakes and pies (13.4%).

High UPF consumers, defined as those with a UPF of more than 14.6% of their total diet, are more likely to be female, younger, and have a higher level of education. They also reported fewer risk factors and fewer chronic diseases and underlying health conditions than people who took UPF less frequently.

In addition, high UPF consumption was associated with lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet; higher intake of fat, sugar, dietary cholesterol, and sodium; but lower fiber intake.

During a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 1,216 all-cause deaths occurred. Of these, 439 were associated with CVD, 255 IHD / cerebrovascular diseases, 477 cancers, and 300 other causes.

The more UPF, the higher the risk of CVD, death

The investigators found a direct linear dose-response relationship between a 5% increase in the proportion of UPF in the diet and the risk for all-cause and mortality of CVD.

Individuals reporting highest UPF intake (fourth quartile [Q4], 14.6% of the total diet) compared to the lowest (Q1, UPF <6.6%) had an increased risk of CVD death (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.58; 95% CI, 1.23 - 2.03), death from IHD / cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.52, 95% CI, 1.10 - 2.09), and all causes of death (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09 - 1.46).

High sugar levels accounted for 36.3% of the UPF association with IHD / cerebrovascular mortality. Other nutritional factors, such as saturated fat, may not have played a role, the researchers wrote.

Renal function biomarkers accounted for 20.1% of the UPF association with all-cause mortality and 12.0% for UPF with CVD mortality.

Subgroup analyzes showed that the magnitude of the association between UPF and all-cause risk of death was greater among high-risk individuals, such as those with a history of CVD or diabetes. UPF may also be more closely related to CVD mortality among these high-risk groups.

The interesting finding that the association between UPF mortality and CVD was greater among individuals with good adherence to the Mediterranean diet, which is known to have health benefits, can be explained by the fact that people who might benefit from a Mediterranean diet are more prone to lose health benefits when they also included “adverse dietary behavior,” whereas those who ate a poor quality diet were less likely to be harmed by additional unhealthy behaviors such as eating UPF regularly, Bonaccio and colleagues wrote.

“This is an exciting study confirming that consumption of processed foods such as pizza, processed meats, and soda is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease,” Walter Willett, MD, professor of epidemiology and nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, was told theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology.

“This higher risk appears to be mediated in part by a high intake of saturated fat and sugar, but a lower intake of the health-enhancing aspects of the diet also most likely contributed to these findings,” Willett said.

“Some food processing can be useful for the preservation and control of infectious agents, but in general, a diet that emphasizes minimally processed fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes, legumes, and vegetable fat sources would be best. for long-term health to be, “he said.

This study was partially supported by the Italian Ministry of Health and the Italian Association for Cancer Research HYPERCAN Study. Bonaccio and Willett report no relevant financial relationship.

Am J Clin Nutr. Published online 18 December 2020. Abstract

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Antidepressant does not improve post-stroke recovery | Instant News


Every year nearly 14 million people worldwide suffer from a stroke, and half of those who survive end up with permanent functional impairments. Animal studies and small human studies have shown that fluoxetine, a SSRI drug, which inhibits the absorption of serotonin in the brain, may contribute to post-stroke recovery of brain. Animal studies have shown that the treatment causes new cells are formed in the damaged area of the brain.

Impact on functional capacity was now questioned in a large randomized study of patients with acute stroke (with Effects research). The researchers also studied adverse reactions to the drug and its effect on depression.

No improvement recovery

“Our study shows that fluoxetine does not improve recovery after stroke,” says Erik Lundströmdoctor , stroke and head researcher effects the researcher Department of clinical neurology. “The number of depression indeed decrease, but the risk of bone fractures increases.”

The study included 1,500 patients from 35 Swedish hospital from October 2014 to June 2019, making it the largest ever randomized controlled study of stroke in Sweden.

Patients were randomly placed in the group that received six months of fluoxetine (20 mg) treatment or placebo, without the participants or researchers knowing who was assigned where. Then, the functional ability was measured using the modified Rankin scale (Mrs), which is the most common scale for assessing post-stroke loss of function.

Three joint research

Effects is collaborating with two other academic studies of treatment with fluoxetine after stroke (concentration and affinity). The collected results from approximately 6,000 patients included in these three studies will be presented throughout the year.

“My advice is to refrain from the use of fluoxetine as a preventive therapy after a stroke,” says Dr. Eric Lundstrom.

The study was funded by grants from the Swedish research Council, Swedish heart and lung Foundation, the Swedish brain Foundation, Swedish medical society, king Gustav V and Queen Victoria’s Foundation of Freemasons and the Swedish stroke Association. The sponsor was the Karolinska Institute (Department of clinical Sciences, Danderyd hospital).

Publication

The safety and efficacy of fluoxetine on functional recovery after acute disorders of cerebral circulation (effects): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study“. Erik lundström, Eva Isaksson, Per Näsman, West Lane, björn Mårtensson, Bo Norrving, håkan wallén, jørgen Borg, Dennis Martin, Mead, Gillian, Graeme Hankey, Jay Hackett, Marie l, Sunnerhagen, Katharina S. the Lancet neurology, online July 21, 2020

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COVID-19 infected patients are more likely to suffer from a stroke, a new study suggests – Technology news, the team Firstpost | Instant News


COVID-19 is significantly associated with an increased risk of stroke, According to a study that says that patients infected with the coronavirus have to go through aggressive monitoring of neurological status.

According to the researchers, including from the school of medicine Icahn mount Sinai in the US, COVID-19 infection is a risk factor for acute stroke.

In a study published in American journal of Neuroradiologyaccording to estimates of scientists , of patients presenting to six hospitals in new York on suspicion in the course in the period from March to April.

According to researchers, COVID-19 infection is a risk factor for acute stroke. A symbolic image. Image credit: PTI

“We conducted a retrospective study case-control of the 41 cases and 82 control group matched for age, sex and risk factors,” the scientists wrote in the study.

After adjustment for age, gender and risk factors, the researchers found that COVID-19 infection had a significant Independent Association with acute ischemic stroke — caused by a clot that blocks a blood vessel in the brain.

Comparing the group of patients with stroke compared with stroke, they showed significant increase in the number of patients with COVID-19 infection among a group of stroke after accounting for other known risk factors of stroke.

Researchers believe that patients with COVID-19 should be assessed before the acute neurological changes.

“This is the first serious critical study to show that COVID-19 infection as a risk factor for acute stroke,” punit Belani, co-author of the study from the mount Sinai hospital.

“Patients with COVID-19 should be evaluated early for acute neurological changes, as well as timely examination should be performed in patients with suspected stroke, reduce morbidity and mortality,” said Belani.

Recalling the limitations of the study, the researchers stated that the study included only 41 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19, adding that further studies involving a larger population may help to validate the findings.

“Future efforts could evaluate whether this relationship is true in large populations and the pathophysiological mechanisms inherent in COVID-19, that drive this Association,” the study says.

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How COVID-19 affects the nervous system | Instant News


A new paper published in the journal JAMA Neurology in May 2020 discussed the presentation and complications of COVID-19 with respect to the nervous system.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands of cases of severe pneumonia and respiratory disorders, in 188 countries and regions in the world. The causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, is a new coronavirus, with well-recognized lung complications. However, evidence is increasing that the virus also affects other organs, such as the nervous system and heart.

The Coronaviruses: A Glimpse

That corona virus is a group of large spread RNA viruses that infect animals and humans. Human infections are known to be caused by 7 coronaviruses, namely human coronavirus (HCoV) –229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2.

Among these, the last three are known to cause severe human disease. While HCoV is more associated with respiratory manifestations, three of them are known to infect neurons: HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, and SARS-CoV-1.

Current research aims to contribute to the knowledge of the SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism, as well as post-infectious neurological complications. This virus infects humans through ACE2 receptors in various tissues, including airway epithelium, kidney cells, small intestine, proper lung tissue, and endothelial cells.

Because endothelium is found in blood vessels throughout the body, this offers a potential route for CoV to be localized in the brain. In addition, a recent report shows that ACE2 is also found in brain neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, especially in areas such as substantia nigra, ventricles, middle temporal gyrus, and olfactory bulb.

Interestingly, ACE2 in neuron tissue is expressed not only on the surface but also in the cytoplasm. This finding could imply that SARS-CoV-2 can infect neuronal and glial cells in all parts of the central nervous system.

How does neuroinvasion occur with SARS-CoV-2?

Current knowledge indicates the possibility of nerve cell virus invasion by several mechanisms. These include the transfer of viruses across synapses of infected cells, entering the brain through the olfactory nerve, infection of endothelial blood vessels, and migration of infected white blood cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB).

The corona virus has been shown to spread back along the nerves from the edge of the peripheral nerves, across synapses, and thus into the brain, in several small animal studies. This is facilitated by a pathway for endocytosis or exocytosis between motor cortex neurons, and other secretory vesicular pathways between neurons and satellite cells.

Axonal transport occurs rapidly using axonal microtubules, which allow the virus to reach the body of neuron cells with a retrograde version of this mechanism.

The possibility of spreading the olfactory route is marked by the occurrence of isolated anosmia and age. In such cases, the virus can pass through the latticed plate to enter the central nervous system (CNS) of the nose. However, more recent unpublished research shows that olfactory neurons lack ACE2, whereas cells in the olfactory epithelium do so. This could mean that a viral injury to the olfactory epithelium, and not the olfactory neuron, is responsible for anosmia, but further studies will be needed to confirm this.

Cross the BBB

This virus can also pass through the BBB through two separate mechanisms. In the first case, infected vascular endothelial cells can move the virus across blood vessels to neurons. Once there, the virus can start to bud and infect more cells.

The second mechanism is through infected white blood cells that pass through the BBB – a mechanism called Trojan horse, which is famous for its role in HIV. Inflamed BBB allows the entry of immune cells and cytokines, and even, possibly, viral particles into the brain. T-lymphocytes, however, do not allow viruses to replicate even though they can be infected.

Neurological features of COVID-19

From limited data on neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, it is clear that headaches, anosmia, and age are among the most common symptoms. However, other findings include stroke and an abnormal state of consciousness.

While headaches occur in up to one third of confirmed cases, anosmia or age shows a much more varied prevalence. In Italy, about one fifth of cases show this symptom, while almost 90% of patients in Germany have such symptoms.

The researchers said, “Given the reports of anosmia that appear as early symptoms of COVID-19, specific testing for anosmia can offer the potential for early detection of COVID-19 infection.”

Impaired consciousness can occur in up to 37% of patients, due to various mechanisms such as infection and direct brain injury, metabolic-toxic encephalopathy, and demyelinating disease. Encephalitis has not been documented as a result of COVID-19.

Toxic-metabolic encephalopathy can occur due to a number of disorders of metabolic and endocrine function. These include electrolyte and mineral imbalances, kidney disorders, and cytokine storms, hypo or hyperglycemia, and liver dysfunction. Patients who are elderly, ill, or already have symptoms of dementia, or are malnourished, are at higher risk for this condition.

Less common neurological complications include Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is a post-viral acute inflammatory demyelinating disease, and cerebrovascular events, including stroke.

Is COVID-19 Therapy Related to Neurological Manifestations?

Nowadays, many different drugs are used to treat this condition.

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, for example, can cause psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, and the latter can worsen the symptoms of myasthenia gravis. Tocilizumab, an IL-6 blocker, is intended to reduce excessive cytokine release that occurs in severe inflammation. Although admission to CNS is limited, it can sometimes cause headaches and dizziness.

Precautions for COVID-19 Patients with Neurological Conditions

If a patient already has a neurological condition that requires special treatment, they tend to be at higher risk for COVID-19, due to existing lung, heart, or liver conditions, having kidney disease (dialysis), if they are overweight, or at immunosuppressive drugs. Also, it is likely that they may be in nursing homes, where many countries have reported severe outbreaks.

This study concludes: “Doctors must continue to monitor patients closely for neurological diseases. Early detection of neurological deficits can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better treatment algorithms. “

Journal reference:

  • Zubair, A. S. et al. (2020). Neuropathogenesis and Neurological Manifestations of Coronavirus in the Coronavirus Era 2019: Overview. JAMA Neurology. doi: 10.1001 / jamaneurol.2020.2065.

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World No Tobacco Day 2020: How your body recovers when you stop smoking | Instant News


Every year, May 31 is celebrated as World No Tobacco Day. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, conducted in 2017, 28.6% of people in India consume various forms of tobacco (whether or not smoked).

To push people out of smoking, the Indian government has been working on the ‘Be Healthy Be Mobile’ initiative since 2015, which was carried out in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunications Union. This initiative supports smokers throughout their journey to stop smoking with the help of constant text messages on cellphones.

Representational pictures. Image by Myriam Zilles from Pixabay.

Doctors believe that the body begins to recover and return to its original state immediately after stopping smoking.

Benefits of quitting smoking: Timeline of healing

WHO states that quitting smoking can show a positive effect on the body immediately. Quitting smoking can bring short-term and long-term benefits. The changes reported after quitting smoking are as follows:

  • Within 20 minutes after stopping smoking, heart rate and blood pressure return to normal limits.
  • After 12 hours of stopping, carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas, drops to normal in the blood.
  • After 2-12 weeks of stopping, blood circulation and lung function of the body begin to improve. Within 12 weeks, the heart and lungs start getting the right amount of oxygen needed for them to function properly.
  • After 1-9 months of quitting smoking, there is a slight incidence of coughing and shortness of breath.
  • After you stop smoking for one full year, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease is reduced by half of what happens when the person smokes.
  • After five years of stopping smoking, the risk of stroke will decrease.
  • After 10 years of stopping smoking, the risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, lungs, bladder, cervix, and pancreas is reduced by half of what happens when the person smokes.
  • After stopping smoking for about 15 years, the risk of suffering from coronary heart disease is equivalent to the risk of a nonsmoker.

The way to stop smoking

Someone who wants to quit smoking must make a decision and must be determined. Some people may need nicotine replacement therapy to stop smoking. In this therapy, people are given nicotine patches, lozenges, gum and inhalers, which release a limited amount of nicotine into the body without tobacco toxicity.

Ongoing support from family members and friends by telephone, email or text can help the person stay motivated through smoking cessation trips.

Some studies reveal that additional therapies such as yoga and acupuncture can help the person overcome withdrawal symptoms as well.

For more information, read our article at How to stop smoking?

The health article on Firstpost was written by myUpchar.com, India’s first and largest resource for verified medical information. At myUpchar, researchers and journalists work with doctors to provide you with information about all matters of health.

Updated Date: May 29, 2020 15:05:34 IST

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