Tag Archives: Transportation / Travel

54.8% of COVID-19 cases imported to Brazil on March 5 originated from Italy | Instant News


PICTURE: In Brazil more than 300 people started an epidemic. Most passengers fly from Italy.
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Credit: CDC

Italy is the main origin of individuals who first brought a new corona virus to Brazil, according to a study by Brazilian researchers in collaboration with colleagues in the UK, Canada and the United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Brazil between February and early March.

“In contrast to China and other countries, where the outbreak began slowly with a small number of cases, it began in Brazil by more than 300 people, most of whom came from Italy. The virus spread very quickly as a result,” said Ester Sabino, one of the authors of the study. Sabino is a professor at the São Paulo University School of Medicine (FM-USP) and chaired the university’s Institute of Tropical Medicine (IMT-USP) between 2015 and 2019.

Most of these people came from Italy to the city of São Paulo, where the first cases of the disease in Brazil were notified, but some went to other destinations, including Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Salvador, Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, Fortaleza, Recife, Vitória and Florianópolis, contribute to the spread of disease nationally.

This research was supported by São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP under the protection of the Brazilian-English (English-Brazilian) Center for Discovery, Diagnosis, Genomics, and Epidemiology.CADDE). The results are reported in an article was published in Journal of Travel Medicine.

Researchers estimate that 54.8% of all COVID-19 cases imported into Brazil on March 5 came from infected people in Italy, followed by passengers flying from China (9.3%) and France (8.3%) .

They also estimated that 24.9% of all infected people who flew to Brazil during the period traveled from Italy to São Paulo, and that Italy was the start of five of the ten main routes for infected travelers who came to Brazil (via China , France, Switzerland, South Korea and Spain).

To identify the main routes for importing COVID-19 into Brazil, the researchers analyzed February-March 2020 data for passengers traveling to any Brazilian airport from 29 countries with confirmed cases of the disease.

They estimate the proportion of infected tourists who have the potential to arrive in Brazilian cities from each country and for each route based on the total number of passengers flying to any Brazilian airport during this period, the country’s population and the number of cases notified by these countries on March 5, 2020.

The estimate is corroborated by official Brazilian Ministry of Health data on reported cases, showing that 14 of the first 29 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Brazil had just been to Italy. Six of them (23.1%) were told in Sao Paulo.

“It is very clear that São Paulo will be the epicenter of the epidemic in Brazil because that is the final destination for the largest number of people infected mainly from Italy,” Sabino said.

Focus on internal mobility

According to Sabino, who led genome sequencing from the coronavirus isolated from the first two confirmed COVID-19 cases in Brazil, ongoing community transmission of the disease is now in force and the authorities must focus on limiting internal mobility to overcome the epidemic.

This means limiting the mobility of the population of Sao Paulo, where most of the confirmed cases in Brazil have been notified.

“São Paulo and to a lesser extent, Rio de Janeiro will be the center of the spread of the virus throughout the country, so people must be prevented from leaving these two cities,” he said.

Continuation of sequencing

Researchers led by Sabino went on to rank SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Brazil diagnosed with COVID-19. At one point they had to stop because some of their members were considered to have been infected.

“We have to close the laboratory, but we are going back now and will analyze whether we can order a larger number of viral genomes,” Sabino said.

The speed with which the disease has spread throughout Brazil has disrupted the group’s plans. “Transmission of the virus takes place so quickly that sequencing data cannot help us understand how the epidemic spreads as we planned,” Sabino said.

Researchers hope to be able to sort the virus when sporadic cases of the disease are told to track the path of transmission and contribute to the design of a containment strategy, but the number of cases that arrive at the laboratory turns out to be the same. too high.

“It is not possible to control the epidemic simply by sequencing. The spread is very fast, and we can no longer track all cases,” Sabino said.

The number of genomes ordered worldwide from infected patients is nearly 800. This sequence is being published, and can be used for research on primary resistance to help develop promising antiviral drugs against viruses, Sabino explained.

“When a drug candidate is found, a virus genome sequence database will definitely be useful for this purpose,” he said.

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About the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)

The São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) is a public institution with a mission of supporting scientific research in all fields of knowledge by providing scholarships, scholarships and grants to investigators related to higher education and research institutions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. FAPESP realizes that the best research can only be done in collaboration with the best international researchers. Therefore, he has built partnerships with funding institutions, higher education, private companies, and research organizations in other countries known for the quality of their research and has encouraged scientists who are funded by his grant to further develop their international collaboration. You can learn more about FAPESP at http: // www.fapesp.br /id and visit the FAPESP news agency at http: // www.agencia.fapesp.br /id to be constantly updated with the latest scientific breakthroughs FAPESP helps achieve through many programs, awards and research centers. You can also subscribe to the FAPESP news agency at http: // agencia.fapesp.br /customer.

Denial: AAAS and EurekAlert! is not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

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Ride ride is associated with more collisions for motorists and pedestrians | Instant News


Ride trips increase the number of collisions for motorists and pedestrians at pickup and delivery locations, reports a new study from researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. This study is the first to use data for traveling by individual vehicles, rather than comparing cities where riding a vehicle is available for those who are not available. This finding was published in the journal Injury Prevention.

Motor vehicle accidents are one of the leading causes of death globally, and every year around 1.3 million people die on the road. In the U.S., 33,654 people were killed in 2018, and 2.3 million others were injured.

Ride services, such as Uber and Lyft, have facilitated more than 11 billion trips in the US since operations began in 2010. Several studies have identified that alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents are reduced when call-up services are available in the city, but these studies also found no change in the overall number of accidents.

The team from Columbia Mailman School, together with collaborators from Oxford University in England, used data for 372 million hail trips in New York City for 2017 and 2018. They identified the area of ​​the city where motor vehicle accidents occurred, and then counted the number of ride trips vehicles originating nearby at the time of the accident and comparing them to the number of trips riding vehicles originating from the same location one week before the accident and one week afterwards. They carry out the same procedure for taxis, and separate accidents according to injured people – motorcyclists, pedestrians, and cyclists.

The results showed that the increase in ride was related to the increase in accidents where motorists and pedestrians were injured. They did not find any links for bikers who went on strike or for taxi trips.

“Ridesharing is changing the way we move around cities,” said Christopher Morrison, PhD, assistant professor of epidemiology at Columbia Mailman School, and first author of the study. “It is increasingly clear that this technology reduces alcohol-related collisions, but this benefit does not seem to extend to the total number of collisions. This finding helps explain why it might occur – because the reduction in alcohol-related collisions does not occur governed by an increase in other types of crashes.”

The authors suggest that cities and companies riding bicycles can use this information to help prevent injuries. “There are so many daily rideshare trips in our city, even a small change in risk can have a big impact on the total number of injuries,” Morrison said. “In areas crowded with large numbers of rideshare pick-ups and drop-offs, cities can consider installing cab-style infrastructure to protect pedestrians and prevent accidents.”

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This research was funded by grants from the National Center for Injury and Prevention Control, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (R49CE003094) and the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (K01AA026327).

Co-authors include Christina Mehranbod, Muhire Kwizera, Andrew Rundle, and Katherine Keyes, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; and David Humphreys, Oxford University.

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

Founded in 1922, Columbia University School of Public Health pursues a research, education and service agenda to address critical and complex public health issues that affect New Yorkers, the nation and the world. Columbia Mailman School is the seventh largest recipient of NIH grants among public health schools. Nearly 300 multi-disciplinary faculty members work in more than 100 countries around the world, addressing issues such as preventing infectious and chronic diseases, environmental health, maternal and child health, health policy, climate change and health, and public health preparedness. It is a leader in public health education with more than 1,300 graduate students from 55 countries pursuing various master and doctoral programs. Columbia Mailman School is also home to various world-famous research centers, including ICAP and the Center for Infection and Immunity. For more information, please visit http: // www.mail carrier.Colombia.edu.

Ride trips increase the number of collisions for motorists and pedestrians at pickup and delivery locations, reports a new study from researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health. This study is the first to use data for traveling by individual vehicles, rather than comparing cities where riding a vehicle is available for those who are not available. This finding was published in the journal Injury Prevention.

Motor vehicle accidents are one of the leading causes of death globally, and every year around 1.3 million people die on the road. In the U.S., 33,654 people were killed in 2018, and 2.3 million others were injured.

Ride services, such as Uber and Lyft, have facilitated more than 11 billion trips in the US since operations began in 2010. Several studies have identified that alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents are reduced when call-up services are available in the city, but these studies also found no change in the overall number of accidents.

The team from Columbia Mailman School, together with collaborators from Oxford University in England, used data for 372 million hail trips in New York City for 2017 and 2018. They identified the area of ​​the city where motor vehicle accidents occurred, and then counted the number of ride trips vehicles originating nearby at the time of the accident and comparing them to the number of trips riding vehicles originating from the same location one week before the accident and one week afterwards. They carry out the same procedure for taxis, and separate accidents according to injured people – motorcyclists, pedestrians, and cyclists.

The results showed that the increase in ride was related to the increase in accidents where motorists and pedestrians were injured. They did not find any links for bikers who went on strike or for taxi trips.

“Ridesharing is changing the way we move around cities,” said Christopher Morrison, PhD, assistant professor of epidemiology at Columbia Mailman School, and first author of the study. “It is increasingly clear that this technology reduces alcohol-related collisions, but this benefit does not seem to extend to the total number of collisions. This finding helps explain why it might occur – because the reduction in alcohol-related collisions does not occur governed by an increase in other types of crashes.”

The authors suggest that cities and companies riding bicycles can use this information to help prevent injuries. “There are so many daily rideshare trips in our city, even a small change in risk can have a big impact on the total number of injuries,” Morrison said. “In areas crowded with large numbers of rideshare pick-ups and drop-offs, cities can consider installing cab-style infrastructure to protect pedestrians and prevent accidents.”

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This research was funded by grants from the National Center for Injury and Prevention Control, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (R49CE003094) and the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (K01AA026327).

Co-authors include Christina Mehranbod, Muhire Kwizera, Andrew Rundle, and Katherine Keyes, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health; and David Humphreys, Oxford University.

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health

Founded in 1922, Columbia University School of Public Health pursues a research, education and service agenda to address critical and complex public health issues that affect New Yorkers, the nation and the world. Columbia Mailman School is the seventh largest recipient of NIH grants among public health schools. Nearly 300 multi-disciplinary faculty members work in more than 100 countries around the world, addressing issues such as preventing infectious and chronic diseases, environmental health, maternal and child health, health policy, climate change and health, and public health preparedness. It is a leader in public health education with more than 1,300 graduate students from 55 countries pursuing various master and doctoral programs. Columbia Mailman School is also home to many world-renowned research centers, including ICAP and the Center for Infection and Immunity. For more information, please visit http: // www.mail carrier.Colombia.edu.

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