Having grown up in rural Switzerland, photographer Luca Ellena hit, after moving to Berlin, with lots of goods littering the city streets. He decided to take a picture of every trolley he saw and three years later he has over 600 drawings, the best of which were collected in his first book, Shopping business.
‘The waste of resources when the trolley is thrown away,’ he said, ‘and the way most people don’t even see it is, to me, a representation of our time.’
KARACHI: The Federal Revenue Council (FBR) aims to generate up to Rs15 billion in additional sales tax revenue by setting limits on production waste announced by producers, officials said on Saturday.
To prohibit waste and treat it as a sale, FBR has put in place a rule whereby companies’ reported wastage of raw materials equates to average wastage in the sector concerned.
Officials say large entities engage in practices that claim a significant percentage of production wastes and in some cases claim as high as 40 percent.
Through the Finance Law, 2020, new amendments were introduced to the Sales Tax Law, 1990, in which the fixation of waste would be determined by sector.
FBR in a circular issued on August 6, 2020, stated, “The changes were made to remove the discretion of the jury officers and for similar treatment throughout the board regarding allowing / prohibiting input tax credits for input items wasted during normal business processes, as long as the credit exceed the benchmarks / limits set by FBR ”. FBR on October 1, 2020 issued SRO 938 (I) / 2020 to inform the rules for implementing sectoral fixation of waste.
As a rule, the FBR Input-Output Coefficient Organization (IOCO) has been mandated to improve the limits of waste for an economic sector. “Where the level of waste has been corrected and notified by the board [FBR] Under this rule, no registered person has the right to take input tax adjustments with respect to wasted input above and above the limit set and notified by the board, “the guidelines said.
A senior FBR official said at the time of budgeting for the 2020/21 fiscal year policymakers were expecting around Rs12-15 billion in additional revenue by streamlining this process.
FBR has detected a large variant of waste claimed by manufacturing companies in various sectors including tobacco, steel, vegetable oils, food, sugar, cement, pharmaceuticals etc., the official added. He further said the wastage claimed by some industrial issues was well above international benchmarks.
The entire exercise will help FBR reduce the size of the refund, he said.
“Once the benchmark for wastage is set, FBR can add waste to sales and subtract the same amount from the plaintiff’s refund amount,” the official added.
Zeeshan Merchant, President, Karachi Tax Bar Association (KTBA) said that it is almost impossible to compare waste because of the different production environments of different companies in the same sector.
“If FBR sets limits on waste for a particular sector, the implementation stage will be more difficult because companies from the same sector can use machines of different brands, origins and capacities,” he said, adding that such situations led to an increase. in litigation.
In 1968, Leroy Foster was a principal sergeant in the US Air Force, assigned to Anderson Air Force Base at Thrush, an island region of the United States in the Pacific. The day after he arrived on the island, he recalls being ordered to mix “diesel fuel with Agent Orange”, then spraying “by truck all over the base to kill any overgrowth in the forest”.
Before long, Foster developed serious skin complaints and eventually fell ill with Parkinson’s disease and ischemic heart disease. Later, her daughter developed cancer as a teenager, and her grandson was born with 12 fingers, 12 toes, and a heart whisper. Foster died in 2018.
A new book, Poisoning the Pacific, due for release Monday, tells of decades of US military contamination of indigenous lands in the Pacific as well as the oceans themselves, endangering lives and ecosystems across the vast Pacific Ocean.
Written by British journalist Jon Mitchell, Poisoning the Pacific is based on more than 12,000 pages of documents obtained under the US Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and through interviews with local residents, military veterans and researchers.
The book argues that for decades, the US has been treating it territory in the Pacific with neglect, allowing its military to violate customary rights, seize land, and destroy fragile ecosystems.
Alongside Foster’s case – after years of campaigning the aviator is finally compensated for his exposure on the island – Mitchell’s book details decades of US military operations that polluted the Pacific with toxic substances including radioactive waste, nerve agents, and dioxin-tainted Agent Orange. .
“US authorities have repeatedly tried to cover up the contamination through lies, disinformation and attacks on journalists,” Mitchell told The Guardian. “I have experienced this pressure firsthand.”
Mitchell’s books document several attempts by the US state and defense department to block his work. One FOIA file shows that Mitchell is being watched by the US Marine Corps’ Criminal Investigation Division. The documents include his photo, his biography, and a lecture he gave in Okinawa on military contamination.
“Colleagues warned me not to continue with my investigations. What particularly motivates me to continue filing for FOIA and extracting evidence is the very real impact my research has had on veterans exposed to Agent Orange in Okinawa, ”he said.
“My report has helped these sick men and women receive compensation from the US government. Investigative journalism is ultimately a job that is supposed to help people who have experienced persecution receive the justice they deserve. “
Poisoning the Pacific details the ongoing environmental damage and risks to human health.
The ‘dome’ on the island of Runit in the Marshall Islands – a compact sovereign nation in free relations with the US – is a large concrete grave where the US has stored more than 70,000 m3 radioactive debris, including plutonium-239, left over from US post-war atomic tests. Irradiated land from Nevada was also transported to the island and dumped.
The dome leaks radioactive material into the sea, USA energy department admitted, although it was said the numbers were not dangerous. Successive US governments have said the dome is the responsibility of the Marshall Islands, saying the US has paid more than $ 600 million in radiation-related resettlement, rehabilitation and health care costs to affected communities.
The book documents “the US Army dumped 29 million kilograms of mustard agents and neuroprotective agents, and 454 tonnes of radioactive waste” into the Pacific Ocean, as well as the US military’s use of neuroprotective agents, including sarin, which US government documents confirmation leaked to the neighborhood while scheduled for destruction at Johnston Atoll near Hawaii.
The debate over the use of a potentially lethal herbicide has been hotly debated.
After the second world war, some five thousand barrels of Agent Purple – the herbicide pioneer Agent Orange – were transported and stored on Guam.
Although the US defense department consistently claims herbicide stockpiles are never used on the island, service members stationed there at the time claim they sprayed and dumped military waste, including damaged herbicide barrels, on the cliffs of Guam.
Researchers, including Guam’s department of public health and social services, reported in 2015 that villages where the herbicide is believed to have been sprayed experienced a higher incidence of infant mortality from birth defects.
In 2017, investigating claims of herbicide use on Guam, the US government itself came into conflict: the the defense department reported that the soil test contained no herbicides, the environmental protection agency reported otherwise.
The health and environmental impacts on Guam reflect what has happened to local residents and US soldiers based in Okinawa, Japan, where the US has maintained a base for decades, and where Mitchell began reporting.
In 2005, the US struck a deal with Japan to transfer thousands of US marines from Okinawa to Guam. Okinawans consistently oppose the US military presence on the island citing harm to their health and environment.
There has been some progress, although limited. Guam senators have backed a bill to include the territory on the list of veterans’ places where Agent Orange is used. In March 2019, a bill that was named after Lonnie Kilpatrick, a service member who fell ill on Guam and died, agreed to compensation for 52,000 veterans who were exposed to herbicides in three US Pacific regions – Guam, American Samoa, and Johnston Atoll.
But even in 2020, the voices of indigenous peoples are consistently muted, Mitchell said. In July, the time when military excavations on Guam were revealed dozens of sites containing human remains and cultural artifacts, local residents – especially the indigenous Chamorro – were shocked. But despite concerns fueling a growing movement to demilitarize the Pacific, the US’s newest marine corps base – the first new base in nearly 70 years – officially opened the door earlier this month.
Sindh Chief Minister Syed Murad Ali Shah, who chaired the second meeting of the Provincial Coordination & Implementation Committee (PCIC) on Friday, decided to launch a waste-to-electricity project in Karachi for which the necessary steps would be taken at the earliest.
The meeting was attended by provincial ministers Nasir Shah and Awais Qadir Shah, Karachi Corps Commander Humayun Aziz, Main Secretary Mumtaz Ali Shah, GOC Major General Karachi Aqeel, P & D Chair Muhammad Waseem, PSCM Sajid jamal Abro, Karachi Iftikhar Shallwani Administrator, Commissioner Sohail Rajput, Transport Secretary Shariq Ahmed, Regional Government Secretary Najam Shah, Managing Director of KWSB Asadullah and others.
The issue of removing garbage from Karachi was discussed at the meeting which stated that of the 15 waste removal posts, only six were operating. The meeting agreed on the resurrection or reconstruction of six more waste removal posts.
The meeting was informed that the TPA will be filled soon; therefore, a power plant might be installed to consume the waste collected from the city. Generating electricity from garbage not only burns garbage but also saves landfills.
The meeting decided to draw up a plan to generate electricity from the waste collected from the city at the earliest. Companies interested in the project can be invited to submit their proposals.
The meeting was told that the survey of the five nullah (rainwater channels) had been completed. Gujjar Nullah is 13.5 kilometers long by 210 feet wide as per the master plan, and 5,961 households, 41,581 individuals and 2,412 commercial units were erected along its embankments.
The Orangi Nullah are 12.5 kilometers long, and 100 to 150 feet wide, and 4,480 households, 27,000 individual settlements and 380 factories were erected along the embankments. Likewise, Mahmoodabad Nullah is 4.1 kilometers long, 100-200 feet wide, and has 1,049 households, 5,900 individual settlements and 156 commercial settlements along its embankments.
The Malir River is 30 kilometers long and 1,700-2,000 meters wide, and has 1,996 households, and 12,336 settlements / encroachments. The Lyari River is the longest river with a length of 50 kilometers, and a width of 300-500 feet according to the master plan.
The meeting was informed that the NED University of Engineering & Technology is conducting a survey with a frame of reference to analyze the width and capacity of 44 major rainwater channels in the city, a survey of nullahs with a number of physical structures, and mapping with the aid of drones and outlines of encroached land . During the meeting it was informed that the survey of the five prophets had been completed and that other work would be completed on November 15, 2020.
In Phase-II, a hydrological and hydraulic modeling survey of the drainage system will be carried out.
Under the survey, de-marking the existing drainage network, modeling tools for measuring the expected flow in the area, the cross-sectional details of the nullahs that will be used to assess the section capacity to meet the flow will be carried out. .
The chief minister said an ideal cross section would be proposed for each water channel based on terrain and flow models for current and future improvements, and a best management plan for the drainage network to reduce the risk of urban flooding would be prepared.
The meeting discussed a proposal to purchase electric buses for the Green Line Bus Rapid Transit System being built in Karachi. The bus may be operated by a private operator. The meeting also established a schedule for various tasks for project completion, including KMC’s repair of 106 roads.
Americans waste 30 to 40% of the food we produce. And where the waste goes is an important question because where you put it can help or harm the planet. There is no in between.
One way to dispose of your old vegetables and food scraps is to take them to a landfill. What is happening at the TPA may be different than you think.
Because landfills are deep enough and contain lots of things that will never go bad, food scraps that end up there don’t have what it needs to break down. The degraded microbes need oxygen from the air; they are aerobic microbes. They convert food waste into soil-like substances and they will release carbon dioxide (CO2), just as we do when we exhale. But not for long.
With no fresh air entering, the waste immediately switches to anaerobic decomposition, which means it breaks down with microbes that don’t need oxygen.
The problem here is that instead of emitting CO2, anaerobic microbes emit methane. And even though CO2 is a greenhouse gas, methane is 28 times worse. This means that it stores 28 times more heat than CO2. So this is not a good way to dispose of our food waste.
And that’s a shame because 30,630,000 tonnes of food waste goes to landfills in the US alone each year, according to the EPA. This makes landfill food waste a major source of greenhouse gases.
A small portion of our leftover food becomes compost. And it offers a great solution.
In 2009, San Francisco launched mandatory recycling and composting regulations. The compost is collected together with green waste and transported to the city composting center. The compost produced is used by regional farmers and wineries. Overall, in 2012 the city had achieved a waste diversion rate of 80%.
Here in Nevada County we have a municipal composting program aimed at larger food waste processors. Check out Garbage Management, the Nevada County homepage and scroll down a bit to find out more.
Into the gutter?
You can throw some of your leftover food in a landfill. What happens then is that water enters the wastewater treatment plant and contributes to the bio-solids there. Methane is produced from biological solids. Several processing plants collect methane to burn for other energy purposes, but many are still not captured.
And if you have a septic tank, RotoRooter advises not to throw your leftovers in landfills.
This method of disposal is mutually beneficial for everyone. Composting allows microbes to work to break down your leftovers and many of the other organic matter you have on hand. You make sure they have food (leftovers and other organic matter), the right amount of humidity, fresh air, and aren’t too hot or too cold.
What compost can do for you is create a fertile change to your garden soil for more and healthier vegetables, herbs and flowers. But it is not a source of nutrition for your plants. It does have some of it.
The main benefit of compost is that it provides microbes that will thrive in your soil and continue to break down organic matter to make new nutrients available to your plant roots.
After all that decay occurs, a series of chemical reactions take place and a mixture of molecules is produced. This mixture is called humus. One type of molecule that results from this process is humin, a very large molecule full of carbon. Since humus is the end product of all putrefaction, it does not break down any further. This means that humus survives in the soil for hundreds or even thousands of years.
So composting food waste helps lock carbon into the soil. Take it from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere – a major greenhouse gas, through plant growth, and convert it to carbon in the soil to last for a very long time. So, if you compost your leftovers, and put them in your soil, you will not only benefit from better soil health and garden productivity, but you are also helping in the fight against climate change!
There are so many ways to make compost! They can be very simple to get more involved. You will get more compost faster if you choose a method that requires more attention.
Basically, here’s how to make it. The organic material you need may be brown or green. Chocolate is higher in carbon and lower in nitrogen. Chocolates are things like fallen leaves, perfect for autumn collections, sticks, some paper, straw and the like.
Green is higher in nitrogen and usually also contains water. This includes leftovers (generally vegetative only), aged vegetable crops and minor pruning.
All of them already have microbes in them. Putting them together and adding just the right amount of moisture will allow microbes to multiply and destroy plant material. Turning the compost or in some other way aerating it makes the oxygen supply in the pile. If not refilled, the pile can become anaerobic. Which, as I noted earlier, releases methane. What we don’t want.
But compost can be simpler by using a cold pile that breaks down more slowly. You can even use a bucket in the garage. Or you can try worm composting. Getting fresh worm castings is one of the best things you can do for your plants, even your houseplants. And it can be done indoors.
There are countless resources for learning more about all methods. For starters, I recommend the Master Gardeners website, ncmg.ucanr.org. Check out the Compost is the Gardener’s Best Friend video from August 22, 2020, plus their resources.
There are tons of YouTube videos and books showing how to compost, several methods if you don’t have the page. Worm composting will provide you with the best fertilizer for your potted plants and can be done in a mud room, patio or garage. And composting buckets will give you something to add to even a small outdoor garden space.
Any composting keeps food waste out of landfills which will cause even more damage to the planet. And although it may sound like a drop in the ocean, it is the collective little actions of individuals that speak clearly and can make a difference to help our planet.
Doreen Fogle is a landscape designer and writer in Nevada County. More of her articles can be found on her website mydelightfulgardens.com and she can be reached at [email protected].